Student:

Work completed as part of the Student Work Workbook

took part in the Student Studio work experience programme. This work was submitted as part of the Student Studio work experience programme.

Top

Second

of the "Second" Student Studio Workbook

test

Supervisor Comments

A Great Bit of Work

of the "A Great Bit of Work" Student Studio Workbook

ccccan I edit???EDITED BY DEREK  Now which one was it, Greg or Craig? Great good, good, Lorraine, I had a feeling about you two. Welcome to my latest experiment. It’s the one I’ve been waiting for all my life. And where’s my reports?

A Subheading

Doc, she didn’t even look at him. After I fell off my toilet, I drew this. Right.

Look, George, I’m telling you George, if you do not ask Lorraine to that dance, I’m gonna regret it for the rest of my life.

Uh, well, actually, I figured since it wasn’t due till Monday- No, why, what’s a matter? A different video:

Supervisor Comments

Generic

of the "Generic" Student Studio Workbook

Supervisor Comments

Day 1

1 of the "Day 1" Student Studio Workbook

My tasks for the day were as follows;

1) I researched the different bridges that are based in this country and studied the different ways they were all precisely constructed.

The London Millennium Bridge being constructed in 2000 was set to be a spectacle for the commuters of London linking bankside with the City of London. It was designed by Sir Robert McApine. At a total length of 325 metres and width of 4 metres as well as a span of 144 metres, the bridge was have a maximum capacity of 5000 people on it at the same time. The bridge was however closed due to unexpected lateral vibrations due to it’s frequency mode being 0.8Hz which was below the recommended 1.3Hz. This resulted to the ‘sway’ movement of the bridge because of the similar vibrations between the Londoners walkers and the bridge’s natural vibrations. The problem was then solved by using a frequency absorber in the form of 37 fluid-viscous dampers to control horizontal movement and 52 tuned mass dumpers to control vertical movement. 8 supporting cables are also used to support the lower deck and are tensioned to pull with a force of 2000 tons.

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge constructed by architect Wilkinson Eyre and structural engineer Gifford is nicknamed ‘the winking eye bridge’ due to it’s shape and it’s tilting method. The construction of the bridge totalled to £22 million. The bridge rotates to a full 40 degrees in precisely 4.5 minutes. The main body consisting of two arches, one being the secondary which holds the primary arch by 18 steel cables. The rotating of the bridge is to allow larger water vessels to pass beneath it with the help of six 45 cm (18 in) diameter hydraulic rams (three on each side, each powered by a 55 kW electric motor) Smaller ships and boats are able to pass beneath the bridge as it’s in it’s normal position.

The infinity bridge is situated in Newcastle and links the Teesdale Business Park on the south bank of the Tees with the Tees valley Regenerations. The bridge was constructed by the expedition engineering company and was opened May 2009. It was constructed with materials; weathering steel, stainless steel and reinforced concrete. The two arches are made from steel, giving them the advantages of the metal being relatively cheap and readily available. Steel is also strong enough to withstand harsh weathers or any nature caused predicaments. The concrete used is the base of the decking of the bridge. Some advantages of concrete are that it’s cheap and can withstand high amounts of weight. The bridge’s ergonomics are as follows; the total length, total width and total height are 240 metres, 5 metres and 40 metres respectively.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Ailsa Roberts on: June 8, 2015
Great research with the vital information plus plenty of detail included. The vital information will come in handy when you are designing your own bridge and deciding the geometry and materials to use. Keep in mind how the shape of the bridges you have researched affects how they work to support the load and appear within the surrounding environment. In engineering the selection of materials is very important so understanding why each part of a bridge is made of concrete, steel, or timber will help in your design. For example, why was the Infinity bridge Arch made of steel and not concrete or timber? Keep up the good work and ask lots of questions!

Day 2

2 of the "Day 2" Student Studio Workbook

I spent the first part of my day carefully planning the amount of time I would spend on the different parts of work I had to research about during the day.

I then begun on the ‘Desk Study’ section of my work, The three locations I have been asked to choose from to start the construction are all neighboring an iconic power station which dates back to the 1930s. I therefore knew that the construction of the foot bridge would have to compliment the station in order for me to get the green light to begin construction. The main purpose of the bridge is to make transportation easier for pedestrians and cyclists to and from the power station. The main obstacles that the construction would face are the two working piers which are not to be disturbed. Other obstacles include the tunnels beneath the waters such as the Thames Water Battersea to Plimico tunnel.

Secondly, I started my research on the access to the footbridge. Already knowing that the main objective of the footbridge is to make transportation of pedestrians and cyclists easier to and from the power station, I calculated which option offered the less distance needed to be covered to reach the power station from Plimico Station which was option 3 which was roughly about 0.6 metres in 13 minutes at an average walking pace of 3.1 miles/hour. However both locations 1 and 2 would be cheaper to construct due to their lengths being shorter than that of location 3 meaning less costs to be spent on materials. Location one is the furthest from Plimico bridge but has some advantages such as having the lowest costs to manufacture due to it being the shortest as well as the use of an already existing structure to build upon instead of constructing an entirely new structure. One disadvantage of this location would be the disruption it would cause to the railway line resulting in possible complaints from TFL who would then either not present a lease for construction or charge a higher price for the right to construct. Using Location 1 could also result in the disruption of the A3212 which is a relatively busy road.

Location 2 is the shortest of the 3, meaning it is also the cheapest due to less materials needed to construct it. However the disadvantages include the fact that it has a thin alignment which would limit the access for pedestrians coming from Plimico Station.

Location 3 would be the most suitable location for the bridge to be constructed due to its shortest distance to Plimico Station. Another reason why I’ve chosen location 3 is because it’s length allows me to construct a large enough bridge for both cyclists and pedestrians to use simultaneously.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Ailsa Roberts on: June 9, 2015
How did your planning of your time go today, was it effective? You have done a great job in understanding how the 3 locations affect the geometry of the bridge and travel time and you have given a good argumentation of the pros and cons of each one. In terms of stakeholders, the local council will be happy that you have chosen location 3 because of the location to the tube station however because it is longer they will be concerned about the addition cost they have to pay so your bridge may have to simpler than your first thought… You have presented a clear and persuasive case as too why location 1 shouldn’t be chosen due to distances and disruptions, well done. Because you have chosen location 3, you should understand the constraints for this location in the most detail by providing a sketch or list. Example of constraints are: Water levels, clear distance for boats, underground tunnels and services which will affect your abutments. This is important because when you start sketching the bridge tomorrow you need to be aware of these constraints, so you don’t encounter future problems near the end of the week. Careful planning will ensure a successful project! We would suggest you include the constraints and your bridge position at location 3 on a sketch first thing tomorrow. In terms of aesthetics, it is a great idea to compliment the neighbouring power station. Print out 3-4 pictures of the power station first thing for inspiration while sketching! You seem to be ready for tomorrow so keep on the good job.

Day Three

3 of the "Day Three" Student Studio Workbook

Day Three has been the hardest day in terms of the amount of work I had to complete in set given periods of time. My time was carefully planned in order for me to complete all the tasks at hand.

I started the day off by sketching some initial ideas of bridges that I thought were good enough to be constructed, I drew up about 6 different ideas. After doing so, I decide to think about the advantages and disadvantages of each of the six bridges. I then discussed with my supervisor how the bridge would work and fit into the space that was given for it’s construction. To do this, I created a    page, this enabled me to see the amount of space I had to begin the construction of the bridge. I had a span of 310 metres to fill, a minimum height of 9.91 metres above sea level to build the bridge and only one location to place one pier. The bridge will be accessed with the combination of a gradually increasing ramp and steps. One problem came to light with at the north side of the bridge, there wouldn’t be enough space for a ramp due to there being a road approximately 20 metres behind the Thames. This resulted in me deciding to bend the structure of the bridge which would reduce the size of the ramps. The materials that I decided to use were similar for all of my initial design ideas, I decided to use stainless for the beam rods and reinforced concrete for the decks. However for one of my designs, I decided to use steel for the rods that would later rust to produce a more aesthetically pleasing colour and appearance.

After sketching my ideas and planning how they would function as a bridges and what materials I would make them out of, I had a design meeting with my supervisors to whom I explained my sketches to. We then discussed the pros and cons of each design and decided whether or not they could be modified to get rid of their limitations. After the meeting, I had two design ideas that were equally liked by both my supervisors and myself. I made my final design on the basis that it was a combination of my two design ideas. My final design will be constructed out of mainly steel, stainless steel and reinforced concrete; the steel will be used to make the two arches that cross through each other, the stainless steel will be used to make the rods going down the two arches and the reinforced concrete will be used to make the two decks. My final design will fit in the space that it’s meant to without blocking any navigation channel thus allowing all water vessels to move on the Thames, my bridge will also meet the minimum clearance level with the lower deck being the lowest part of the bridge being at a height of 20 metres above sea level thus meeting the 9.91 metre requirement. The bridge will also meet the span requirement being around 380 metres in total.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Ailsa Roberts on: June 10, 2015
Excellent work today, you have put in a huge effort today to keep on track for Friday. Your research on different bridge shapes was helpful when you presented your 6 concept sketches. Organising design meetings with others are a great way to get ideas problems you may not have been aware of, for example, the North Bank road blocking access onto the bridge, which you talked about. I think your final bridge shape is excellent and fits the constraints well. It is a complex shape which is hard to draw and visualise, so I have some sympathy for you as it is hard to draw your bridge in Plan and Elevation. The Elevation and Plan drawing you started doing of your final bridge should show the full picture to give someone else a better understanding of the constraints and why you have ended up with the alignment and shape you have. For example: Show the river and the banks On the north bank show the road and buildings which you have to avoid On the south bank show the working pier and how your bridge curves to avoid it. Show the underground services Writing notes and explanation around the drawing with arrows pointing to parts of the bridge gives someone a better understanding, and a reminder/reference to yourself for tomorrow and when preparing your presentation. This all helps someone appreciate the hard work and research you have put in. Keep all your sketches in order as a way of tracking the design development process that you are doing. A tip on your sketching, don’t be afraid to use the black felt tip pens to achieve different line thickness's, this will make your drawings stand out! Well done today, tomorrow is another big day!

Day Four

4 of the "Day Four" Student Studio Workbook

I have decided to change my thoughts of which day has been my hardest, which without a doubt has been today. I have gained a lot of knowledge on how the numbers behind the construction of bridges work to place it in the location it has to be as well as the manufacturing of the materials needed. My day consisted of two main things; calculations and construction sequence.

I spent most of the day working on the calculations needed to be done in order to successfully gain the materials needed to construct the bridge. I started off by doing less complicated calculations such as finding out the height of the arches and the maximum frequency of cables that could be used, which were 52m and 18 respectively. I then reduced the thickness of the deck to make the load lighter and more stable to be held by the cables and arches, I halved the thickness down to 9 metres and then multiplied the number of cables to 32 and 11.

I then went onto the harder calculations which caused problems for me, I calculated the total volume of the two decks. To do so I firstly worked out the length of one deck which was 317 metres, I then multiplied that number by one giving me the same answer, 317 cubed metres for one deck and then 634 cubed metres for both the decks in total. This figure was then multiplied by the density giving me 1,521,600 kilograms which accumulated to 1521.6 tonnes of concrete for both the decks in total.

I then calculated the volume of the cables, I firstly calculated the maximum number of sections where I could place the cables which was 35, I multiplied this by four to give me a figure for both arches which was 140 positions. This was the multiplied by 52 which is the length of one cable giving the maximum length of all cables of 7280 metres. The area of the circle was calculated and a total of 5.15 squared metres was produced. This was then multiplied by the density to give me a volume of 40.138 tonnes.

I then calculated the volume of both arches by finding the area of the cross section which was 0.19 squared metres which I then multiplied by the length of the cross section which was 354 metres giving me an answer of 67.26 metres which was then multiplied by the density of steel being 7800 Kg giving an answer of 524,626 Kg(524.626 tonnes) and a total of 1048 for both arches.

After the calculations, I then researched various points on how to transported my materials and decided to do so by boat, this would be very sustainable by the way it would cause less harm on the environment due to less usage of trucks which produce large amounts of dangerous gases. I will try to minimise disruption by only constructing between the working hours of the day, meaning there would be no noise pollution for any near-by tenants.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Ailsa Roberts on: June 11, 2015
You did an excellent job today! I understand the calculations linked to a bridge can be overwhelming, and the design of your bridge added some complexity to your calculations, so well done for getting to where you are. You have demonstrated throughout the day that you have a mind for mathematics. I appreciated your questions which showed that you wanted to understand the physical significance of the each term in the calculations of the weight of the materials. Today, I think you have understood that the mechanics, materials and geometry are essential to implement an engineering solution, and I think you will benefit hugely from a course in Physics to complement your mathematical skills. When working through engineering calculations, I find it useful to summarise my values at the beginning and at the end of my calculations. I think you could really benefit from this, to make sure that you have a constant reference of all your critical information. I appreciate that you may not have had much time to investigate the construction sequence of your bridge, but we had some interesting discussions about how to minimise disruptions, what the implication of large structural elements is in terms of lifting, transport and general logistics. I hope that today showed you the importance of sketching continuously throughout the design process. As you saw, it helps me resolve some complicated issues by either simplifying the problem or by checking that my result is in the right area. For your presentation tomorrow, all your notes and sketches will be useful to summarise your findings, present your bridge and show us your final drawings. Remember: don’t be shy about your annotations and labels, it is very useful to spark your memory and it will show all the hard work you’ve put in! Well done again!

Final Day

5 of the "Final Day" Student Studio Workbook

On my final day, I had the tasks of producing my final design of my bridge in three different angles; a bird’s eye view, a front view and a plan view. The main task of the day was to present my design to my ‘supervisors’ who were to be strangers who had never seen the design.

The first task of designing my final idea in the three different perspectives was almost perceived as a fun role due to how much practise I had done on improving my sketches throughout the week. I firstly traced the position of the river and its surroundings at the point of my future construction. I then drew out the bridge in a bird’s eye perspective with all its content; the two decks, the steel rods and both of the decks. I also included the restraints such as the two working piers as well as the underground tubes. I then proceeded to drawing the bridge in the two other perspectives which I managed to do better than I would have on Monday.

After drawing my final design in the different perspectives, I then started to note down how I would present my week’s activities and workings in my notepad. I re-did all the calculations I had done yesterday without looking at my previous workings which further showed my understanding of the formulas and calculations which I was quite pleased with. The time had come for me to present my ideas to my ‘supervisors’ which I did, but then noticed there was some missing knowledge of my bridge calculations which were resolved and fixed. At the end of the presentation, I was quite pleased with how far I had come within only a week in this working occupation.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Ailsa Roberts on: June 15, 2015
Mark spent the week doing a ‘design task’ for a pedestrian footbridge, which included research, interpreting a brief, sketches, calculations, design team meetings and a final presentation of his design. Mark has been really enthusiastic and focussed this week. He asked a lot of good questions and was comfortable approaching engineers in the office. He seemed to particularly enjoy the intellectual challenge of the calculations, but also said he was pleased to have had an opportunity to improve his sketching. Mark’s final presentation showed the progression of his design and he started to show understanding of a few of the engineering questions we had posed. Mark was really punctual (even early!) all week and was able to manage his time well. We are glad Mark enjoyed his week with Expedition and hope that the rest of his work experience placements go as well! We’d be keen to hear what you decide to study at University!

Nine Elms Bridge – Research and Design

1 of the "Nine Elms Bridge – Research and Design" Student Studio Workbook

CVR 44623528

Nine Elms Bridge

Research and Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Understanding the Possible Proposed Structure

 

Requirements and Brief:

A footbridge located in the Nine Elms area to link the Battersea Power Station Development and the borough of Wandsworth (on the south side) to Kensington and Chelsea (on the north side). The crossing should also offer a pedestrian-friendly alternative to crossing the Thames Path, avoiding the Chelsea Bridge to the east.

The options presented have a range of span lengths from approximately 250m to 400m.

Of the options presented, one intends to adjoin to an existing rail bridge on the line from London Victoria, while the other two would be new structures.

Furthermore, the concept must allow sufficient height for river traffic passing underneath and sufficient width to cater for the pedestrian and cyclist traffic which it needs to carry (around 3 to 4 metres).

Although cost constraints are not given, the bridge should use materials efficiently. Of course, such structures carry a smaller load in comparison to road or rail bridges. However, over-slenderness makes it more susceptible to liveliness, something which is important especially with cyclists, the elderly and the disabled. Nevertheless, modern public building projects are expected to be elegant, both design-wise and after decades of use, and sustainable. This can be achieved via recyclable materials and economising on the actual amount used thereof.

Inclination is also less restricted; the United Nations ‘Enable’ Project (Accessibility for the Disabled Design Manual) suggests a maximum gradient of 1 in 20 for ramps. Network Rail limits gradient to 1 in 37. Indeed, BS5400 even allows for a climb of up to 1 in 12.

Almost all footbridges are equipped with guard rails to prevent pedestrians falling. If they are near busy roads or railways, they may also include a fence or other such barrier to prevent pedestrians from jumping, or throwing projectiles. Similarly, to prevent road accidents at the entrances, enough space at the pavement should be left for persons to exit or walk around the structure.

Common types of pedestrian crossing include:

 

  • Cable-Stayed Bridge
  • Suspension Bridge
  • Truss Bridge
  • Arch Bridge
  • Beam Bridge
  • Cantilever Bridge

There are also other less common variants:

 

  • Simple suspension bridge (i.e. Rope Bridge)
  • Zig-Zag Bridge (type of Beam Bridge)
  • Stepping Stones (type of Beam Bridge)

 

Footbridges may contain the following materials:

 

  • Steel
  • (Reinforced) Concrete
  • Timber
  • Stone or Brick
  • Fibre-Reinforced Plastics

 

They may be surfaced with:

 

  • Asphalt
  • Concrete
  • Glass
  • Steel
  • Aluminium
  • Wood

 

Pedestrian Traffic:

 

It is stated that the Battersea Power Station Development will encompass “3,700 new homes, 1.5 million ft2 of office floor space and 500,000 ft2 of retail, restaurants, hotels and community facilities.” This, therefore, will be an important location to factor in when placing the bridge.

Railway and metro stations are typically well frequented by pedestrians. While there is no station close to the proposed sites of the bridge, there exists Slone Square and Pimlico Underground stations to north-west and north-east of the site respectively; Victoria (a mainline terminus) further northwards and Battersea South and Queenstown Road rail stations, both c.800m south.

To the south-west and north-east there are significant residential areas built prior to the re-development. This includes many large tower blocks along Churchill Gardens Road which is next to all of the proposed sites.

Leisure-wise, the Thames Path and Battersea Park are both popular with walkers. A footbridge would avoid the Chelsea Bridge, a road bridge, which is noisy and unappealing. There are also concerns about air pollution in London – a 2008 study estimated that 4,000 extra deaths were caused by PM2.5 fine particles which are emitted from car exhausts.

Walkway Capacity

One must also consider the density of persons crossing the bridge: at a speed of 1m/s there are 1.0 shoppers/m², but the density increases to 1.9 people/m² with rush-hour. Ergo, a bridge carrying those at leisure would have to be wider as a lower density would mean more space is needed. This is because as the velocity increases, the density decreases, assuming the same rate of arrival of persons. Note that 1.0 P/m² is a rough limit to where movement becomes greatly inhibited.

Understanding Possible Sources and Destinations

 

The average walking speed for younger pedestrians is 4.85 ft/second (1.48 m/s) and 4.33 ft/second (1.32m/s) for older pedestrians. Note that this is in an open, uncongested environment unlike a footbridge.

Sloane Square is 0.9 miles from the north bank of the footbridge. Victoria Station is 1.0 miles from the north bank of the footbridge. Pimlico is 0.7 miles from the north bank of the footbridge.

Battersea Park Station is 0.6 miles from the south bank of the footbridge. Queenstown Road is 0.8 miles from the south bank of the footbridge.

From this it is evident that the closest stations should be prioritised: the bridge should aim to be close to Pimlico and Battersea Park as these would be most used. However, Victoria, a mainline terminus, should also considered.

Case Studies

Note: There were pictures, but I can’t put them in here

West India Quay Bridge, London, United Kingdom (1996)

West India Quay

Type, Structure, Material(s): Pedestrian, Pontoon, Steel

Cost: £1.7 million

Dimensions: 94m (total length) 15m (main span length) 4.8m (width) 6.6m (clearance)

Client: London Docklands Development Corporation

Designer: Anthony Hunt Associates (Engineers), Future Systems (Architects)

This bridge was designed such that no load is placed on either side of the waterfront; it rests entirely on the water. The use of floating sections allowed for a quick construction at the site: it was towed upstream from another nearby dock. This minimises disruption in an area used for retail. For Nine Elms, this would be applicable on the north side; Grosvenor Road (A3212) is busy and it is a residential area. However, the south bank is already undergoing a vast, disruptive construction project so would have little impact.

The surfacing offers a good grip for pedestrians even in adverse weather conditions, a requirement which must be considered in Nine Elms as well.

BP Pedestrian Bridge, Chicago, United States of America (2004)

 BP Pedestrian Bridge

Type, Structure, Material(s): Pedestrian, Beam (Girder), Stainless Steel, Reinforced Concrete, Hardwood

Cost: $14.5 million

Dimensions: 285m (total length) 30.5m (main span length) 6.1m (width) 4.4m (clearance)

Client: The City of Chicago

Designer: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (Engineers), Gehry Partners, LLP (Architects)

Unusually no handrail is present – the sides of the bridge and a recessed walkway create a more aesthetically pleasing, unified structure. It has received favourable reviews for its design – an elegant, eye-catching bridge could become an attraction in itself.

The bridge was expensive due to its over-extravagant design. Furthermore, it is closed throughout winter as ice cannot be removed from its wooden floor. This material evidently should be avoided when considering walkways.

The oil giant BP was controversially given the naming rights after being the highest bidder at $5 million. Residents disliked the commercialisation of the park.

Millennium Bridge, London, United Kingdom (2000)

Millenium Bridge

Type, Structure, Material(s): Pedestrian, Suspension, Stainless Steel, Reinforced Concrete, Hardwood

Cost: £18.2 million (£2.2 million over budget)

Dimensions: 370m (total length) 144m (main span length) 4m (width) 10.8m (clearance)

Client: London Borough of Southwark

Designer: Arup (Engineers), Foster and Partners (Architects)

The bridge deck is situated below the suspension structure as not to impede the view of St Paul’s cathedral from the other side of the river. The bridge is very popular and adequately caters for a large volume of pedestrian traffic between some of London’s most popular tourist attractions.

The bridge was not without controversy: its lightweight, long design left it susceptible to uncomfortable lateral resonance caused by pedestrians and wind loads. This was amplified by ‘positive feedback’ as people swayed in the opposite direction to the bridge, slowly increasing the oscillating force. A further £5 million was spent adding 37 fluid dampers to stop horizontal movement and 52 tuned mass dampers for vertical movement.

Initially the project was branded another Millennium white elephant after closing in 2 days for 2 years. This shows the importance of considering vibration.

Cycle Traffic

 

Nine Elms presents the opportunity to have the first traffic-free cycle route spanning the river Thames. Pedestrian crossings such as the Millennium Bridge and the proposed Garden Bridge mandate that cyclists dismount, causing them to use dangerous road bridges instead.

Cycle Super Highway 8 (CS8), from Wandsworth to Westminster, traverses the river at Chelsea Bridge, the road bridge just east of the proposed sites. With recent concerns of cyclist safety, it is critical that the design is wide enough (~4m minimum) and it linked to existing cycle routes. As CS8 already runs along the north bank, a cycle path could be constructed from Queenstown Road to the bridge as well as from Battersea Power Station. The optimum route appears to be along the banks of the Thames, part of which is already a road. This could also interconnect with the paths used for cyclists to get around the Battersea Power Station Development, also encouraging more cycling.

Furthermore, Cycle Super Highway 5 (CS5), to be completed in October 2015 runs perpendicular to CS8 at 1.0km east to the proposed sites, joining Grosvenor Road. This will increase the flow of cyclists, so any cycle path on Grosvenor Road (on the north bank) should seamlessly connect to the crossing without endangering the rider or those on foot.

Technical Constraints

 

Clearance

 

The river Thames is a working river: Chelsea Harbour, for example, upstream of Nine Elms, operates a daily river bus service. The River Thames is the busiest inland waterway in the United Kingdom, carrying 60% of all goods lifted on the UK’s inland waterway network. Latest Department for Transport statistics (2013) show over five million tonnes of freight were transported on the Thames, up 62% on the year before. Ergo, it is imperative that there is sufficient height for vessels to pass underneath.

The river is also famously tidal. The Port of London Authority measured a 6.18m difference between Mean Spring High and Low Water at Victoria Railway Bridge, right next to Nine Elms.

The clearance required is 9.91m ODN (Ordinance Datum Newlyn). This is 6.57m above Mean High Water.

Furthermore, due to the threat of climate change, the flood defence level may be raised from 5.41m ODN to 6.41m ODN. This means that the entrance to the bridge would be raised. The bridge’s surface height is the clearance requirement of 9.91m ODN added to the thickness of the bridge. The inclination of the bridge can be found from the increase in height. Google Street View images of Grosvenor Road show the embankments are at pavement level – 5.41m ODN. In order to maintain the 1 in 20 gradient (assuming a design tallest underneath halfway along), the bridge can be up to 1.75m thick.

Tunnels

 

There are 5 underground structures at the stretch of river in Nine Elms: 2 cable tunnels, 1 water discharge tunnel and 2 water mains.

Location Map

The piers for the bridge should not damage these crucial elements of London’s infrastructure. The diagram (above) also notes other regions where piers cannot be placed: the ecologically sensitive foreshore (green), the working piers (light grey) and the busy main navigation channel (light blue).

Pier Location Map

The red regions (above) indicate where it would be suitable to place piers. By combining this with structural and pedestrian data, the optimum sites can be located.

Pier Location Map 2

A practical design could consist of two piers dividing the bridge into three spans. This is effective because each span would be a similar length and divide the load more evenly, reducing the support needed for them. This design is similar to the Chelsea Bridge.

References

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Andrew Mountjoy on: June 23, 2015
Oscar, this is a great start. You have given due consideration to the client brief, site constraints and pedestrian demand. I am pleased to see that you have thought about aspects that can often cause problems if not considered at an early stage, for example maximum gradients of ramps (and bridge if required) and dynamic excitation. Your lists of crossing type and materials is helpful and it is encouraging to see that you are considering the use of more 'experimental' materials like FRP. Have you thought about how each of the bridge types you have listed works? How are the permanent loads (the bridge self-weight, surfacing etc) and any imposed loads (pedestrians, cyclists, wind etc) transferred to ground? Your case studies are very informative. How would you classify each of these bridges? Two of the bridges you have written about have become local attractions in their own right. Is this important or is it more important that the structure is unobtrusive and doesn't interfere with the existing skyline and views? All in all this is a very good report. I am looking forward to seeing which option you go for.

Choosing a route

2 of the "Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Technical Constraints

 

Clearance

 

The river Thames is a working river: Chelsea Harbour, for example, upstream of Nine Elms, operates a daily river bus service. The River Thames is the busiest inland waterway in the United Kingdom, carrying 60% of all goods lifted on the UK’s inland waterway network. Latest Department for Transport statistics (2013) show over five million tonnes of freight were transported on the Thames, up 62% on the year before. Ergo, it is imperative that there is sufficient height for vessels to pass underneath.

The river is also famously tidal. The Port of London Authority measured a 6.18m difference between Mean Spring High and Low Water at Victoria Railway Bridge, right next to Nine Elms.

The clearance required is 9.91m 10.96 ODN (Ordinance Datum Newlyn). This is 7.62m above Mean High Water.

Furthermore, due to the threat of climate change, the flood defence level may be raised from 5.41m ODN to 6.41m ODN. This means that the entrance to the bridge would be raised. The bridge’s surface height is the clearance requirement of 10.96m ODN added to the thickness of the bridge. The inclination of the bridge can be found from the increase in height. Google Street View images of Grosvenor Road show the embankments are at pavement level – 5.41m ODN. In order to maintain the 1 in 20 gradient (assuming a design tallest underneath halfway along), the bridge can be up to 0.7m thick (at the centre).

There is also a clearance width of 150m between piers.

Tunnels

 

There are 5 underground structures at the stretch of river in Nine Elms: 2 cable tunnels, 1 water discharge tunnel and 2 water mains.

The piers for the bridge should not damage these crucial elements of London’s infrastructure. The diagram (above) also notes other regions where piers cannot be placed: the ecologically sensitive foreshore (green), the working piers (light grey) and the busy main navigation channel (light blue).

Other Obstacles

 

The red regions (above) indicate where it would be suitable to place piers. By combining this with structural and pedestrian data, the optimum sites can be located.

A practical design could consist of two piers dividing the bridge into three spans. This is effective because each span would be a similar length and divide the load more evenly, reducing the support needed for them. This design is similar to the existing Chelsea Bridge.

Furthermore, by restricting the length of the bridge by having it cross the river (almost) perpendicularly, much of the region in front of the working piers is excluded.

This leaves three rough locations for a possible placement of the bridge if it is to remain near to Batter Power Station. Further east there lies Cringle Wharf, Cringle Waste Transfer Station and industrial facilities owned by Cemex Ltd. This would make the project more expensive – it would be less cost-efficient to buy and demolish warehouses and wharves when there is suitable, flat, brownfield land. The brief requested that the design “minimise[d] the loss of open space”, so westwards in Battersea Park is not acceptable. Thus, the 3 options above shall be considered as opposed to the 3 options given previously.

However, much of the Nine Elms redevelopment is occurring east of Battersea Power Station so it therefore may be more appropriate to consider those locations.

Option 1 – At Chelsea Bridge Wharf

 

This is the most westerly option, lying in between the Victoria Railway Bridge and the Chelsea Bridge (A3216).

Due to the presence of a cable tunnel, the optimum location is likely to be nearer to the railway. Similarly to the Option 1 given prior to this option, it could be possible to attach the crossing to the existing railway crossing. Nevertheless, to investigate each option fully, this shall be looked at separately, during the consideration of the bridge’s structure.

Location (sources of traffic) This option is located the furthest from the Battersea Power Station, for whom the project is intended, as well as from the planned Battersea Underground Station. It is also not quite so nearby residential areas as the other proposals. Furthermore, the existing road bridge has pedestrian access, so this will not be as useful in providing a new crossing. It is even more likely to become redundant after the new station opens as Sloane Square would be no longer used.

This crossing is badly located in relation to where it is needed most.

Location (access & construction) The south side has a large space giving good access to the bridge without congestion. There is only a cul-de-sac with almost no traffic. There is also good road access for construction vehicles.

The north side adjoins Grosvenor Road like all other proposed options and there is only a narrow pavement. This may be dangerous for pedestrians. However, the road doesn’t appear to be well used by people on foot, though this may change due to the re-development.

To prevent difficulty for pedestrians passing by the bridge, a ramp perpendicular to the bridge at the north side entrance could be built. This would also allow the surface to rise by one meter (for flood wall heightening), without too steep a gradient.

This crossing is well located for construction access.

Other advantages
Other disadvantages Squashed between two bridges, any artistic merit of the bridge’s design would be hard to appreciate.

The railway and busy road would also look unappealing from the crossing itself. The noise and pollution would detract from the selling point of the bridge being pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly.

 

Option 2 – East of the Victoria Railway Bridge

 

In lying in the middle of the options, this structure is still further away from the power station than the third one. It could also be less close to the railway, giving better views (on the bridge and of the bridge).

Location (sources of traffic) It is near enough to the housing being built, as well as from the planned Battersea Underground Station. It is nearby residential areas such as Churchill Gardens.

This is still not far from the existing road bridge, which has pedestrian access, so this will not be as useful. However, it is best positioned for all the railway and Underground stations.

This crossing is fairly well located in relation to where it is needed most, but doesn’t cater for demand – especially with the flow of people from Churchill Gardens to the planned Battersea station.

Location (access & construction) The south side has a vast area of cleared brownfield land, ideal for construction and pathway links. There is a drop as one approaches the water front due to a small road which passes under the railway bridge. However, this is not a disadvantage – it should cope better with heightened flood defences.

The north side adjoins Grosvenor Road like all other proposed options:

There is only a narrow pavement. This may be dangerous for pedestrians. However, the road doesn’t appear to be well used by people on foot, though this may change due to the re-development.

To prevent difficulty for pedestrians passing by the bridge, a ramp perpendicular to the bridge at the north side entrance could be built. This would also allow the surface to rise by one meter (for flood wall heightening), without too steep a gradient.

This crossing is well located for construction access.

Other advantages Good views of the Thames on the east side.

Further away from other bridges, so less noisy, polluted and restricted.

Other disadvantages Similar to option one in being near to other structures.

 

Option 3 – Thames Water Authority

 

As the most easterly proposal, the crossing would extend from land currently owned by Thames Water to Grosvenor Road.

Location (sources of traffic) Well positioned for Battersea Power Station (it is the closest option) and the planned Battersea Underground Station (also closest), this is clearly the best situated. It also serves the Churchill Residential area in the middle, not at the edge.

Even before the Northern Line Extension is completed, it is closest to Pimlico, the nearest Underground Station, so will be well used whether the railway is built or not.

It is 500m from the road bridge, a length significant enough as not to be competing with in. This will also make a structure which is more socially popular as it makes sure that it works with residents’ needs. A crossing build more west would most likely need another bridge to the east – a waste of money.

The only disadvantage is that it would be slightly further from Victoria station, home to an import rail station as well as many offices. This is only by circa 100m.

Location (access & construction) Unfortunately the south side lies on property owned by Thames water – while much of it is cleared, there is a pumping station. There is certainly good access for construction, however the pumping station may detract from the potential aesthetic features of the design.

Nevertheless, one would expect, as part of the redevelopment of the area, the industrial buildings so close to the residential housing will be removed eventually.

In Kensington & Chelsea, the minor issues are identical to the other options.

Other advantages Better views; bridge’s artistic qualities can be appreciated; no noise or exhaust fumes from being nearby roads.
Other disadvantages The option is nearest to industrial buildings, though it is expected that these will be cleared in the future.

 

Conclusion:

 

Ultimately, all factors point to the latter option as meeting the needs of users, construction and aesthetics, as well as the ongoing renovation of the locality. Both other proposals severely lack in the crucial aspects of necessity and distance to the power station and transport.

‘Urban Environment’

 

Definition

 

This term refers to fitting in to the architectural style and heritage of the area, much in the same way as native species are planted to fit in with a natural environment.

Battersea Power station remains the largest brick building in Europe. Few sites on the south bank of the River Thames have as rich architectural heritage. The exterior of the structure was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, and was built in two phases between 1929 and 1955.

The western half – Battersea A – was built between 1929 and 1933 in the Art Deco style. It has a steel girder frame with a brick-clad exterior and reinforced concrete chimneys. The ornate interior was lined with faience and marble and featured parquet floors, wrought iron staircases and sculpted bronze doors.

The eastern half – Battersea B – took from 1941 to 1955 to construct and was built to match the design of the western section. Battersea A ceased generation in 1975 and Battersea B in 1983. The iconic building has been Grade II* listed since October 1980.

Photographs

 

These photographs show much of the art-deco 1930s history of the buildings in the region.

(Above) Inside the Turbine Hall A

(Above) 1951 – Churchill Gardens Estate (and its heat-accumulators), designed by Powell and Moya, parts of which are now Grade II listed.

(Above) The infamous four white chimneys as well as the industrial wharf

How the bridge can fit into this heritage

 

One of the defining features of the art-deco style is the attention to detail and imposing extravagance – despite being such an industrial building, this power station has a stepped structure at the chimneys, attractive windows and an ornate interior.

This could be used on the bridge: although brick is no longer the construction material of choice, the angular stepped forms could be introduced into the design. However, the structure should also contain some of its own, modern styling

Less structurally-critical elements of design such as handrails or surfacing could also emulate some of the area’s architectural heritage.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Andrew Mountjoy on: June 24, 2015
Oscar, this is a very clear description of the process you have gone through to reach your final decision. I particularly like the way you have defined a high level optimisation problem to pick your three options and then delved into each of these to make your final choice. I am interested to know what sort of weighting you allocated to the different factors. I think it is excellent that you have explored your own options. Why do you think the three sites given in the brief differ? Do they have advantages over yours? Your in depth consideration of the three options is very clear. You have thought about the problem from a stakeholders point of view by considering the structure's impact on the local surroundings as well as thinking about the experience users of the bridge will have. You are right to try to incorporate the area's heritage into the design of the new bridge. I now understand that your stepped surface is an homage to the stepped structure at the battersea power station chimneys. You must also think about how this will impact the usability of the bridge. For example, such a feature would surely have an impact on cyclists and wheelchair users. Well done on another excellent day's work. Hopefully I will be able to catch up with the marking tomorrow! We should also think about setting a time on Friday for you to present your scheme. I will put a half hour in our calendars so you can tell Shanique and me about it.

Design (Initial Concept)

3 of the "Design (Initial Concept)" Student Studio Workbook

‘Urban Environment’

 

Definition

 

This term refers to fitting in to the architectural style and heritage of the area, much in the same way as native species are planted to fit in with a natural environment.

Battersea Power station remains the largest brick building in Europe. Few sites on the south bank of the River Thames have as rich architectural heritage. The exterior of the structure was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, and was built in two phases between 1929 and 1955.

The western half – Battersea A – was built between 1929 and 1933 in the Art Deco style. It has a steel girder frame with a brick-clad exterior and reinforced concrete chimneys. The ornate interior was lined with faience and marble and featured parquet floors, wrought iron staircases and sculpted bronze doors.

The eastern half – Battersea B – took from 1941 to 1955 to construct and was built to match the design of the western section. Battersea A ceased generation in 1975 and Battersea B in 1983. The iconic building has been Grade II* listed since October 1980.

Photographs

 

These photographs show much of the art-deco 1930s history of the buildings in the region.

Turbine Hall

(Above) Inside the Turbine Hall A

Churchill Estate

(Above) 1951 – Churchill Gardens Estate (and its heat-accumulators), designed by Powell and Moya, parts of which are now Grade II listed.

Battersea Power Station

(Above) The infamous four white chimneys as well as the industrial wharf

How the bridge can fit into this heritage

 

One of the defining features of the art-deco style is the attention to detail and imposing extravagance – despite being such an industrial building, this power station has a stepped structure at the chimneys, attractive windows and an ornate interior.

This could be used on the bridge: although brick is no longer the construction material of choice, the angular stepped forms could be introduced into the design. However, the structure should also contain some of its own, modern styling

Less structurally-critical elements of design such as handrails or surfacing could also emulate some of the area’s architectural heritage.

Bridge Structures

 

Cantilever

 

In a cantilever bridge, at least one part of it acts as an anchor to sustain parts beyond the supporting pier. It can be made from two horizontal beams, anchored at each edge of the entire bridge. However, the forces of the crossing are distributed in a very different way in comparison to a simple beam bridge: the cantilever stays upright due to a moment and its shear strength, whereas beam bridges have no moments – their strength is simply the (flexural) strength of the beam and its tensile strength as one side is stretched more than the other.

Nevertheless, both have a limited length of a span due as nothing more can support a beam or truss than a pier. In a situation like Nine Elms where a 150m clearance width is mandated, this would be unsuitable – the dead weight of the structure itself would be greater than the strength of the beam and truss. It would either flex so the clearance height is too low or, more likely, break.

Suspension

 

In a suspension bridge, the deck is supported by cables hanging vertically from cables running between towers. The deck has little tensile or flexural strength and the vast majority of the weight of the load is transformed into tension on the vertical cables and ultimately, on the cables hanging between towers. This causes a large tension pulling cables inwards from each anchor and thus the anchors must be very well supported. This may be unsuitable for Nine Elms because the north bank in Kensington & Chelsea has only a very narrow pavement. A diversion or realignment of the road would be required, adding to the cost of the bridge. Anchoring is even more difficult with poor ground conditions, which may be wet near the banks of the river.

A common problem with this type of structure is oscillations due to wind and walking in step. Examples of this include the Millennium Bridge (see previously), for which £5 million was spend adding dampers, and the infamous Tacoma Narrows Bridge, where its flexibility amplified torsional vibration due to a phenomenon known as ‘aero elastic flutter’. Both bridges suffered due to a lack of stiffness and positive feedback which is more common with suspension bridges.

Cost-wise, suspension bridges are also more expensive than cable stayed bridges at the ~250m length as more cable is needed.

Cable Stayed

 

In a cable stayed bridge, the deck is supported by the tensile strength of cables attached to a pylon. There may be more than one pylon. As with a suspension bridge, the deck has negligible tensile strength itself and would collapse without the cables. The deck may act as a cantilever where the deck is closest to the pylon.

An important advantage of this type of structure is that no ground anchorage is required as all cables and tension goes to the pylon(s). This also means that the towers are more balanced with the moments, assuming the bridge is symmetrical, so could have less flexural strength. Pylons for both suspension and cable stayed bridges need a high compressive strength as there is a large downward force of the weight of the bridge.

This type of crossing is also far stiffer and less likely to have vibrations as the origin of the cables attached to the deck is constant whereas those in a suspension bridge (hanging vertically) may move with the cable hung between the towers.

During construction, the symmetrical design also acts as a cantilever growing outwards from the pylon. This reduces construction expenses as no temporary structures are needed.

A disadvantage of cable stayed bridges is that the tension force is not perpendicular to the deck as in suspension bridges. Ergo, the further away the deck from the tower, the smaller the angle between the cable and the deck and the greater the horizontal compression. The deck must be stiffer to resist this.

Arch

 

In an arch bridge, the deck is supported (traditionally from underneath or possible hung from cables) by transforming its weight into a horizontal force outwards into the abutments at each side of the bridge.

The materials used need only to be strong in compression, not tension, due to the curved shape. This allows simple materials to be used such as stone and concrete which is not reinforced. Arches are also very good at supporting large weights – in simple arches, the more weight, the stronger the bridge as it cannot flex (stone has poor tensile strength). However, Nine Elms, as only a pedestrian crossing, will not carry much live load.

Arches, as a result of using simple materials resistant to corrosion and erosion, are also very durable. Indeed, arches in from the Greco-Roman era are still in use today, even by vehicles.

However, there are many flaws with the traditional arch bridge. Construction is labour-intensive, slow and expensive because a large amount of material is required (all of which needs labour to cut and carry it) and that it must be supported by an arch frame. In Nine Elms, this would block river traffic for the entirety of its construction, not permitted by the authorities.

Extensive foundations are also needed but this may be unsuitable for the narrow space at Grosvenor Road. Also, in order to maintain compression, the arch must have a large curvature, making the deck higher up. To reach it, a ramp would most likely have a gradient above the 1 in 20 mandated by British law. This, in turn, limits the span of arches – no central pier can be installed.

Tied-arches instead make use of modern materials, relying on tensile strength and well as compressional strength. In a tied-arch bridge, the deck is below the arch and uses cables to support it from above. This also requires large foundations, especially at each side to withstand the horizontal thrust.

Another disadvantage is the height – arches are typically semi-circles so must be half as high as they are long. This could obstruct views, in contrast to the brief – both of the river and of the power station. The design in not as striking and novel as others.

My Design

 

Access

 

There are wide, open entrances on each side; giving enough space for cyclists and pedestrians to separate and go in their different directions. However, access is more limited on the northern end: Grosvenor Road is rather close to the river bank. A gentle ramp allows cyclists and the infirm to be able to board the bridge while also making sure that it has the clearance (10.96m ODN) to allow large vessels to pass under it.

The southern end is open and well connected. It offers paths both ways along the river and also to Battersea/Nine Elms. Provisions are made for those going by bike or by foot; marked cycle paths and a separation are present. This allows enough space to prevent collisions even during congestion – the 4 metre width caters for those who want to see the views on either side as well as those travelling to work.

Structure

 

The use of a cable stayed bridge offers a variety of advantages in this context:

  • Resistant to vibration
  • Strong and well supported
  • No anchors or disruption to each side
  • Quick to build
  • Cost-efficient
  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Balanced in moments
  • Large spans with fewer piers
  • No disruption to river traffic or temporary structures
  • Little disruption to views
  • Does not need an increase in height
  • Easier to build

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Andrew Mountjoy on: June 26, 2015
Hi Oscar. It is very encouraging to see that you have really advanced your concept design. I think that heritage of the area is a very important factor to consider and you have done this very well. It is important to remember that style that may have once been popular may not be today. For example, you talked about the 'imposing extravagance' of the art-deco style. I would argue that this is something that is not sought after in today's footbridges. Also, this bridge is likely to be in place for many many years to come (service lives of 120 years are common) and so the styling must also be relevant in the future. Well done for considering different materials. When we spoke you mentioned you had chosen concrete. Perhaps you could mention any advantages/disadvantages of this choice in your presentation. Overall, you have given a good history and discussion of architectural features that may be incorporated. Often, for cable-stayed bridges, the pylon is the main element where aspects of local culture/history can be incorporated. They are arguably the most prominent feature. For example, for the Danjiang Bridge, we have designed our pylons based on a type of Taiwanese spindle. I really enjoyed your discussion of the different types of bridges. Well done on researching how they work. There are a few important points to make: -You have written that 'beam bridges have no moments'. Beam bridges actually work in flexure (or bending). They do have moments (ie. bending forces) but these are distributed differently to those you encountered while investigating cantilever bridges. You are right that dead load is critical. You can get into a cycle whereby the amount of material needed to resist bending increases as the span increases. This in turn means that the self-weight increases as does the bending moment. More material is needed to resist this etc... -Your discussion on suspension bridges is very good. You have identified what is often a critical consideration with this type of structure - the main cable anchorages. You are absolutely right to talk about the poor ground conditions likely to be found on the banks of the river. Low soil stiffnesses would mean that it would be hard for the large horizontal forces from the main cables to be resisted. One option to get around this is a 'self-anchored suspension bridge'. Here the main cables are anchored to the deck, which resists the horizontal forces by working in tension. The reason this is uncommon is that construction is very difficult (usually the main cables of a suspension bridge are put in place before the deck but here it must be the other way round). Dynamic excitation is a very important point to make so well done for that. Did you know that Flint & Neill were involved with fixing the Millennium Bridge? Also, have you seen the Tacoma Narrows video on YouTube? Definitely worth a look! -The discussion on cable-stayed bridges is very good. You have identified most of the main points. One point I was very pleased to see was on the flexural strength of the pylons. Flexible pylons can be advantageous as they can allow for higher utilisation of the cable capacities. Well done for thinking about the construction process. The balanced cantilever process is certainly a good choice. You have correctly mentioned that the deck is put into compression by the cable system. This can be very advantageous. In concrete structures it reduces any tension (concrete works poorly in tension). However, it may lead to something called 'buckling' of the deck which should be avoided. -You have discussed most of the main points on arch bridges very competently. Arches work mainly in compression but due to non-uniform live loading, must be able to resist some bending too. Roman arches tend to be semi-circular in shape and obviously work very well as they are still around today! However, we now know that a parabolic shape is most efficient. Again, well done for thinking about construction. It is possible to construct arch bridges through a type of cantilever construction that will not block traffic. Soil stiffness is also an important consideration here as large horizontal forces are to be resisted at the foundations. The latest bridge to be completed along the Thames is an arch bridge that carries vehicles (at Walton-on-Thames) and so it is certainly possible. Tied arches are certainly an option. Here large foundations are no longer necessary as the system is self-equilibrating (the deck resists the horizontal force by working in tension). You mention that arches aren't 'as striking and novel as others'. I would argue that they can be. One of my favourites is the Hulme arch bridge in Manchester. The skew angle of the arch adds a novel approach to its design. I am glad to see your design taking shape. Your sketch was very good. You have spoken about access ramps. How long would these need to be to maintain the required gradient? You mention that one of the advantages is that there is 'little disruption to views'. This can be true with cable-stayed bridges. However, a relatively tall pylon may obstruct some views and the cables would interrupt views from the bridge itself. However, I think that it can also add to the view and ultimately it is the stakeholders who would decide which is more important. Well done on another excellent report.

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Picture2Construction Sequence

 

No temporary supports are needed because the deck is built outwards from piers, thereby acting as a cantilever and balancing the moments.

Construction materials are most likely to be brought into site by lorry to the south side. This will cause little impact because the Battersea Power Station Development is of a far larger scale – the effects will be negligible. Large deck sections could be installed via a river barge. To minimise disruption to river traffic, it would be necessary to place this at the sides of the river. Facilities for workers would also be on the Nine Elms/Battersea side. There is going to be almost no waste – some things are pre-fabricated.

  • A coffer dam is sunk at the location of the pier and water is pumped outCoffer Dam
  • The soft river bottom is excavated to reach bedrock or pilings are driven into the bedrock
  • Concrete is poured into a mould and the pier rises up above the water level
  •  Picture2
  • The reinforced concrete towers are made by pouring concrete into a mould on the pier.Pylon construction
  • The first (pre-cast) deck segment is installed by attaching a cable from the pylon to it. The cable is then stressed to its final length. Surfacing may also be added at this stage. Girder segments are erected outwardsAdding deck segments
  • The previous step is repeated on the opposite side
  • The previous two steps alternate until the deck reaches abutments at the river embankments. The deck is balanced because it acts a cantilever. The bridge is structurally weakest just before the deck reaches the abutmentsCantilever construction
  • Handrails, lighting and a façade are added after the structural components are completeHandrail installation

Live Load

 

The maximum live load can be estimates from the person density, the bridge area and mean mass of a person.

2 persons per square metre is typical for a fairly crowded area. The average mass of a European is 70.8 kg. The bridge has an estimated width of 4 m and a length of 250 m. For the sake of brevity, the cross-sectional area of the pylon cancels out the wider sections at the embankments.

Area=250×4=1000

No.persons=Area ×Density = 1000 ×2=2000

Total live mass=Mass per person ×No.persons=70.8 ×2000=141,600

Weight=Mass ×Gravitational field strength=141,600 ×9.81=1,389,096

The maximum live weight is 1,389.096 kN.

Dead Weight

 

As there is insufficient time to convert the design into a 3D model, an approximation can be used based on existing bridges. For greater accuracy, the approximations will be based on similar structures: cable stayed and made from reinforced concrete.

The Normandy Bridge is 2141 m long and 22 m wide. This gives it an area (from plan view) of 47102 m².

It has 20100 t of steel and 80,000 m3 of concrete. Assuming a density of 2400 kg/ m³ this gives a total mass of 212,100 t.

The bridge has a mass of 4.503 per metre square of deck.

Nine Elms is expected to have a 1000 metre square deck. Multiplying the previous figure by this, a mass of approximately 4,500,000 kg is calculated.

Total Weight

 

The total weight on the foundations is estimated at 45,534,096 kN. Only 3% of the total mass is pedestrians.

The foundations must be made form a material of high compressional strength: it must not deform because this would lead to a bridge collapse. A suitable material would be reinforced concrete because it is also durable in water and has enough tensile strength to resist impact.

Wind Load

 

A low building in London typically has a wind load of 0.25 kN/m². This should be increased for the Nine Elms crossing because it is both high and not surrounded by other buildings. It is difficult to calculate the area of the bridge from the side. To approximate:

 

Side area=Deck area+Pylon area ≈250 ×1+74 ×3=472 m2

Wind load=Side area ×Wind pressure

Wind load=472 ×0.5 =236 kN

Design Load

 

The design load aims to account for the unexpected – extreme weather; lack of maintenance; collision and a heavy load – to make sure the bridge is always safe. The standard safety factor is 1.4 for permanent loads which do not vary and 1.6 for loads that are not constant.

Design load wind=Wind load ×1.6=377.6 kN

Design load live=Live load ×1.6=2222.6 kN

Design load dead=Dead load ×1.4=61844.2 kN

Total vertical design load= Design load live + Design load dead =64066.8 kN

Height of the Pylon

 

The length from embankment to embankment is almost exactly 250 m. The pier is a third the way along this length, so the main span is 167 m. By taking a mean of the ratio of pylon height to span length of similar structures, an estimation of the height can be achieved.

Arrigorriaga Footbridge has a max span of 49 m and a pylon height of 20 m. This gives 0.408 m of pylon for every 1 m of the main span.

Galcetello Footbridge has a max span of 30.42 m and a pylon height of 14.9 m. This gives 0.480 m of pylon for every 1 m of the main span.

Passerelle des Atlantides has a max span of 90 m and a pylon height of 40 m. This gives 0.444 m of pylon for every 1 m of the main span.

A mean of these three bridges as 0.444 m, the same as Passerelle des Atlantides.

Pylon height=Main span length ×0.444=167 m ×0.444≈74 m

Loads on each Cable Stay

 

This table shows the dimensions and forces of each cable stay, as well as the required cable from the two leading cable manufacturers. It is imported from an Excel spread sheet.

Cable # Horizontal Distance from Pylon (m) Height on Pylon (m) Angle between Cable and Deck (°) Load on Segment (kN) Tension on Cables (kN) Horizontal Thrust [south] (kN) Clockwise Moment (kNm) Max Single Cable Tension (kN) Bridon Cable Bridon Cable Mass (kg) VSL Cable
0 167 74 23.9 4139.46 10217.8 9341.76 -691290 11353 LC110 12421 6-55
1 144.3 71.36 26.32 4139.46 9337.07 8369.33 -597212 10375 LC105 9963.1 6-43
2 121.5 68.71 29.48 4139.46 8411.2 7322.1 -503133 9345.8 LC100 7846.9 6-37
3 98.82 66.07 33.77 4139.46 7447.47 6191.09 -409054 8275 LC95 6026.8 6-31
4 76.09 63.43 39.81 4139.46 6464.88 4965.83 -314976 7183.2 LC85 3972.3 6-31
5 53.36 60.79 48.72 4139.46 5508.29 3634.03 -220897 6120.3 LC80 2871.5 6-22
6 30.64 58.14 62.21 4139.46 4678.95 2181.15 -126818 5198.8 LC75 2057.1 6-19
7 7.909 55.5 81.89 4139.46 4181.28 589.899 -32739 4645.9 LC70 1524.9 6-19
8 14.82 56.3 75.26 4139.46 25165.6 -6405.1 61339.3 27962 LC175 10130 6-109
9 37.55 58.95 57.51 4139.46 34397.3 -18479 155418 38219 6-139
10 60.27 61.59 45.62 4139.46 25322.3 -17711 249497 28136 LC175 14994 6-109

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Andrew Mountjoy on: June 26, 2015
Hi Oscar. This is a very good set of calculations covering loading and capacities. Your work on the construction sequence is good, although the bridges you have chosen are on a much larger scale. It is potentially still a good choice. You mention that the bridge remains balanced, but the back span is much shorter than the main span. How can we ensure that the structure does not topple over? Your loading calculations are very good. It is always useful to try and estimate figures where you may not have enough information/time to do a rigorous calculation. You have calculated the maximum live load. When looking at the capacities of different elements of the bridge, it is important to make sure we have considered the worst case loading scenario. Do you think this is the worst case for all situations? For example, what loading would give the maximum bending moment in the main span? Another interesting thing to think about is if the deck is only loaded on one side the deck may want to twist. How do you think this may be resisted in a cable-stayed bridge? Try to have a quick think about these questions before your presentation.

My Presentation

5 of the "My Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

Nine Elms Bridge Design

Oscar Brennan

26 June 2015

Proposed Location

Proposed Location

Sources of Pedestrian Traffic

› Residential Areas

› Transport

› Leisure

› Retail

› Cycle Routes

Constraints

› Clearance Height

› Clearance Width

› Inclination

› Tunnels under the River

Considerations for the Alignment

› Location for users

› Construction access

› Views

› Surroundings

› Pollution

Types of Bridge

 

Cantilever

Cantilever

Suspension

Suspension

Arch

Arch

Cable Stayed

Cable Stayed

Case Studies

West India Quay (1996)

West India Quay

BP Pedestrian Bridge(2004)

BP Pedestrian Bridge

Millennium Bridge (2000)

Millenium Bridge

Construction Sequence

Coffer Dam

Coffer Dam

Excavations & Foundation

Excavations & Foundations

Building the Pylon

Pylon construction

Attaching a Deck Segment

Adding deck segments

Symmetrical Construction

Cantilever construction

Adding Handrail etc.

Handrail installation

Materials

Concrete is found in many modern structures but different factors must be considered for whether to use it:

 

Concrete

Concrete

Advantages of concrete

› Cheap

› Durable, resistant and low maintenance

› Can be moulded to a desired shape on-site

› Strong compressive strength

› Quick

› Typically reinforced with steel bars to increase tensile strength

Disadvantages of concrete

› Heavy (low strength to weight ratio)

› Low tensile strength

› Expands due to heat

› Susceptible to cracking

› Not considered aesthetically pleasing?

Steel

Steel

Advantages of steel

› High tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio

› Flexible

› Recyclable

› Easy to install – pre-fabrication

› Other than rust, durable and long-lasting

› Less prone to cracking

Disadvantages of steel

› Heavy – hard to transport

› Expands a lot due to heat

› Metal fatigue

› Less fire-resistant

› Easily weakened by corrosion

› Requires constant painting

› Skilled labour

 

QUESTIONS ANSWERED AFTER THE PRESENTATION

 

Uneven loading & the moments it can cause

Sustainability of concrete – Quarrying and carbon dioxide emissions

Alternative variations on the ‘traditional’ bridge categories e.g. Tied Arch

Problems which an asymmetrical placement of a pier in cable stayed bridges can cause and how to solve this

Heritage & fitting into the history of the area without spoiling the views

Sufficient width for cyclists while keeping viewpoints

Ramp lengths and alternative designs

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Andrew Mountjoy on: June 26, 2015
We really enjoyed your presentation and found it very informative. I'm very happy you enjoyed your week and the project. Good luck with your A-levels and I'm sure we'll see you back again!
Comment by Oscar Brennan on: June 26, 2015
Thank you ever so much Andrew, Shanique and Flint & Neill for giving me a work experience placement. You have been very helpful in letting me choose my career when I am older - engineering. I hope to return to the company sometime in the future as I have learn so much.

Day 1 Research

1 of the "Day 1 Research" Student Studio Workbook

new battersea foot bridge

today I did the research for this foot bridge, as I looked on Google maps for a overview of the area the structure will be made. I used the snipping tool to capture the picture that I presume will be linked with the rest of my work. I also looked at some past made foot bridges and some of there properties, for example I looked at why the design was unique and what it’s made of. I looked at the Stockton-upon-tees, the London Millennium and the infinity bridge.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Another Supervisor on: July 3, 2015
Keep up the good work. Good luck with days 2,3,4,5!!

Day 2

2 of the "Day 2" Student Studio Workbook

Option on the bridge

In my opinion option 1 would be the best as it doesn’t disturb the view of the power station, and it is alongside of the existing rail bridge which would be cheaper as most of the support would be from the existing bridge, but this would cause a lot of noise disturbance for the people crossing.

 

Reflective learning day 2

The planning went well as I got all of this done quickly and efficiently, this has resulted it me finding out more about civil engineering, as I now know what precautions have to be taken into consideration while building something as simple as a footbridge. I hope to complete all my work tomorrow as efficiently as I did today.

Please see drawing in e-mail sent 03/07/15.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Another Supervisor on: July 3, 2015
All valid comments. We can discuss the stake holder meeting later if we get an opportunity. Good work.

Day 3

3 of the "Day 3" Student Studio Workbook

Day 3

The drawings on paper done

Reflective learning

I enjoyed today’s task as I got off the computer and started using pencil and paper, which I enjoyed as I like art and Design Technology. I came up with three designs but my favourite came through to be the one I’m going to use.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Another Supervisor on: July 3, 2015
Again we can discuss the design meeting further at a later point. I like the way you have let yourself be really creative and then analysed your design to refine in given the site / practical restraints. I look forward to seeing how the design develops.

Day 4

4 of the "Day 4" Student Studio Workbook

Day 4

More drawing work done on paper.

Questions

  • Have you always wanted to be a civil engineer?

 

No first I wanted to be an architect

  • What made you choose this profession?

 

I looked into the courses of architecture and there was a lot but the civil engineer suited me best.

  • Where did you study?

 

Oxford University

  • What do you like most about the profession?

 

Putting my own ideas into the mix, and mass producing it

  • What disadvantages does this job give you?

 

It has a lot of constant long hours but it’s all worth it

  • Do you like your colleagues and the people you are working with?

 

I enjoy the company of my colleagues, but some new people I meet on the on-site work is unpleasant sometimes

 

Reflective learning

Again I enjoyed the work away from the computer, the roll playing interview was fun too as it gave me a chance to ask things I didn’t know throughout the company,  but I didn’t enjoy the research bit as it didn’t go into any detail on what I’m researching.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Another Supervisor on: July 3, 2015
Good answers, we can discuss further this afternoon. I look forward to discussing the final results of the course and hearing your feed back. Keep up the good work.

research

1 of the "research" Student Studio Workbook

London Millennium Bridge is a suspension bridge. Infinity Bridge is an arch bridge. Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a tilt bridge. I do not think it is a good idea for the Battersea bridge to be a tilt bridge because it is spanning the Thames and it would therefore have to rotate very frequently, significantly slowing both boat and pedestrian traffic. Better to just build it high enough above the water that boats and people move freely. Suspension bridge could work if it were low, like the London millennium bridge, but otherwise it would detract from the view of the power station. Same for arch bridges, unless the arches are underneath like more traditional bridges, but then it looks kind of boring…

London Millennium Bridge, Gateshead Millennium Bridge, and Infinity Bridge spans are 144m, 105m, and 120m respectively.
Distance between banks for options 1 and 2 is approximately 230m each, and for option 3 it is about 270m.

The Nanning Bridge in China is a cable-stayed bridge with arches on either side. It spans 300m, therefore a similar design would be able to span the 270m length of Option 3. This is not a bad looking bridge. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ling-Tie_bridge_in_Nanning.jpg
The London millennium bridge is made from steel with an aluminium deck; steel is very strong and aluminium is lightweight and doesn’t rust.
The infinity bridge is also made from steel. The arch was constructed in sections and lifted into place with a crane like this: http://assets.thecreatorsproject.com/blog_article_images/images/000/041/480/InfinityPOst5_detail_em.jpg

There is a different Infinity Bridge in Dubai which aesthetically is very, very nice. It spans a distance of approximately 200m, meaning a similar design could successfully support a bridge at Option 2. http://openbuildings.com/buildings/infinity-bridge-dubai-profile-4657

All the above bridges seem to be made primarily from metal, particularly steel, and also concrete.
The Battersea bridge will likely be made using the same materials, but there is something to be said for making it out of stone & bricks to match the style of the power station.

Below is a link to a concept for the development of the power station. If the area is going to be developed like this then there is no need to try to maintain traditional styles. http://openbuildings.com/buildings/architectural-ride-profile-45213

inflatable trampoline bridges are also an option 🙂 http://inhabitat.com/azc-envisions-a-giant-inflatable-trampoline-bridge-for-paris/

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Kyriakos Antoniou on: July 7, 2015
Interesting set of bridges used as example and good logic behand not choosing certain types of bridges. Also good understanding of what materials can be used to built the bridge and what would be aesthetically pleasing.

Nine Elms Bridge – initial research

1 of the "Nine Elms Bridge – initial research" Student Studio Workbook

Bridge Location:

For the site I decided that the best location to place the bridge is Option 1 (attached to the railway bridge).  This location has many advantages:

  • This is the most convenient location for access from all three rail stations and will provide direct access between Victoria Station from Nine Elms. This helps cope with the increased traffic that is expected due to the regeneration of the Battersea Power Station.
  • No adverse effects on Pimlico (a predominantly residential area)
  • Fewer materials required; it is cheaper to build and maintain.
  • Disruption to travel is only temporary and can easily be directed elsewhere.  In the long run it is more beneficial to the transport system than damaging.  It will potentially reduce congestion on the Chelsea Bridge more in this position than if it were in any of the other positions due to it being closer.
  • Bus stops are located nearby so it is convenient to reach.

 

 

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Bridge Overview

1 of the "Bridge Overview" Student Studio Workbook

Bridge Site

I chose option 1 because I believed that its advantages outweighed the disadvantages on numerous occasions, such as location, convenience and expenses. The following are reasons why I chose this location:

  • It is most centrally located here, almost equidistant between Victoria, Pimlico and Sloan Square. This location would provide direct access to Victoria from Nine Elms and it is more convenient for commuters from Pimlico than the other two bridge location options. The likely destination of the bridge users would be Victoria station, so location is of key importance.
  • The average walking speed of a person is 1.4 m/s. The distance between Victoria and the power station is currently 3220m via Chelsea Bridge. This would take ((3220/1.4)/60=) 38 minutes to walk. Option 1 reduces the distance down to approximately 2012m. This would take ((2012/1.4)/60=) 24minutes. This is a significant decrease in time and only supports my decision. Option 2 would make the distance approximately 2160m, taking a time of 26minutes and option 3 would make the distance a lot longer and so would significantly increase the journey time to London Victoria from the Battersea Power Station
  • Disruption on the trail line would only be temporary. The benefits to the transport system in the long run outweigh the short run costs, as this bridge could relieve congestion on Chelsea Bridge. This option is the closest to Chelsea Bridge, hence it is the most suitable replacement for the bridge and it is most likely to reduce the heavy congestion of foot traffic and cyclists on that bridge. It also increases the safety of pedestrians and cyclists as they do not have to walk among traffic any longer.
  • There is no adverse impact on residents in Pimlico, which is a primarily residential area, unlike the impacts from other options.
  • Option 1 is cheaper, as maintenance and building costs are lower due to the shorter distance. Less material is required to build here because the footpath can become a part of the rail bridge. This in turn lowers the maintenance cost of the footpath itself, as it is easier to access and there is less material to manage.

Option 3:

Option 3 is highly contentious among residents in Pimlico as Grosvenor Road is already highly congested at peak times and if cyclists and pedestrians were to be added, the problem would only exacerbated. Secondly, Victoria station would be a 15minute walk if the bridge was to land in Pimlico which questions the convenience aim of the bridge. Thirdly, there may have to be steps at each end and this is not feasible, as there are cyclists on the bridge who cannot use stairs conveniently. It is also further away from Chelsea Bridge and so would not ease congestion on this bridge which is one of the aims of the new bridge.

Option 2:

The location of the bridge is the main problem with this option. Although it is easy to fit in the bridge on the south side, the access to the bridge would be limited in the North. This is a problem because the bridge could become very congested at peak times given the future Nine Elms development project. Queues could easily form as they have done in the past on other bridges and could lead to pedestrian frustration and ultimately the bridge fails one of its aims to make transport easier. In addition, the poor road access provides a safety hazard. I feel that in this case, the disadvantages outweigh those of Option 1.

BRIDGE DESIGN

London Millennium Bridge – 2000 – 144m span.

This is arguably London’s most iconic bridge.  When the bridge was first opened it faced the problem of large oscillations which unsettled most crossing the bridge.  This problem was caused by synchronous lateral excitation and the steel suspensions did not provide enough stability to fully support the lateral momentum created when people walked on it. The problem is accentuated as most synchronise their steps unwittingly to counteract the sway which only serves to accentuate the problem. Two methods of damping are employed to eliminate the swaying: Viscous dampers (located under the deck, around the piers and south landing to control lateral movements) and Tuned mass dampers (located under the deck to reduce vertical movement). They are tuned to a specific frequency and attached to discrete points on the structure. After two years the bridge was reopened.

Materials and uses:

  • Suspension system – majority of the bridge stiffness (lateral and vertical) is created by tension derived from shallow cable profile (the bridge deck is therefore lighter).  Here the tension is about 22.5MN
  • Repeating the components of the aluminium deck saves money.
  • Light pipe system to illuminate bridge
  • Future/current impact leading on the piers based on river traffic surveys, so piers become slender.
  • Cable (steel) sag with a ration of span : dip of 63:1 compared to a conventional suspension bridge which is 10:1
  • Movement joints every 16m to withstand any bridge expansion and also to contract as cables move.

Gateshead Bridge – 2001 – 105m span

An ellipse shape, the bridge rotates upwards through 40degrees to allow boats underneath the bridge.  The bridge is a reflection of itself, therefore the least amount of energy can be used to rotate the bridge through 40degrees, as the weight of the bridge is counteracted the whole time.  Cycle lane is a foot lower that the pedestrian lane, so the pedestrian view is not obstructed and for safety purposes.

Materials and uses:

  • Hydraulics to rotate the bridge.
  • Steel for the arch for design flexibility.  It does not warp or buckle and it is very cost effective and green technology.  However it must be well maintained or it could face corrosion, so maintenance costs may be high
  • Suspension cables to help provide stability.  They hold the bridge up when the pedestrian bridge is in use, as they suspend at an angle to the deck.
  • Bollards removed in 2012 as they deemed were unnecessary.  Initially they protected the bridge from passing ships, but they were ruled unsightly after they did not protect from anything.

Infinity Bridge – 2009 – 180m span (273m overall)

This pedestrian and cycle bridge is 4m wide and is praised for its design and lighting.  At night the illuminated arch of the bridge, in the shape of half of an infinity sign, is reflected in the river Tees, forming what many perceive as the full infinity sign. It cost £15 million to build.

Materials and uses:

  • Precast concrete. Useful as it is greener than many other materials in its lifetime CO2 expulsion. It is aesthetically pleasing and has a lifetime of roughly 120 years. It also is stronger and can withstand compressive forces due to a high Young Modulus.
  • Steel arches (advantages above).
  • Contains 5 enormous tunnel mass dampers tucked below its soffit to ensure vibrations are acceptable, as the deck is not very stiff. However, it is probably heavy enough to be difficult to excite.
  • Narrow arch enhanced by the tripod form of each arch. In the centre it is double ribbed and at the end it is only a single end support. Therefore central support provides all resistance to wind or too much weight.

Battersea Rail Bridge (Cremorne Bridge) – 2008 – 387m span

In my plan, the rail bridge will connect directly on to the rail bridge. I have looked at this bridge in order to help choose my design according to the rail bridge so that it will blend in with the décor of the area and the bridge. There is already a pedestrian crossing underneath the bridge open.

Materials and uses:

  • Truss design to strengthen the bridge. Truss designs are more likely to span wider rivers such as this one as the design will spread the weight along the bridge instead of having one focal point for the full force of the bridge and bridge traffic to bear down upon. Force spreads out to the supports at each end.
  • Characteristically an arch bridge.
  • Total length is 387.1m long with five wrought iron arches arranged in pairs. Stretch of river is only approximately 240m long at this point, so my footbridge does not have to be the same length as the rail bridge.

Queen Elizabeth II Bridge – 1991 – 450m

Otherwise known as the Dartford Crossing, this cable-stayed bridge is arguably the most iconic landmark in Britain, reaching heights up to 137m in the air.

Materials and uses:

  • Steel suspension cables. The cable-stayed design allows a futuristic look and is cost effective as precast concrete sections are frequently used. Cable-Stayed bridges are used for medium distances (between 500-2800 feet or 150m-850m in length).

 

Supervisor Comments

choosing a route

2 of the "choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

desk study
pedestrians will be coming from bus stops & train stations.

There also will be cyclists – there are quite a few borris bike stations in the area & the A3212 has cycle lanes. Therefore stairs should be avoided.

__________________________________________________________________

walking distances & calculated times from pimlico stn to sites 1 2 & 3:
site 1       1.4 km       17 minutes

site 2       1.2 km       14 minutes

site 3       0.9 km       11 minutes
(average walking speed = 5km/h)
__________________________________________________________________

 

 

River wall is currently 5.41m above sea level but may be built up to 6.41m in the future. This wall is on both sides of the river. The bridge also needs to be 9.91m high for most of its span.
The majority of boat traffic is in the middle of the river – must bear this in mind when looking at where to put the piers etc..
The middle 1/3 of the bridge must be clear of pillars to allow boats through.
here is a link to some relevant pictures etc. http://studentstudio.co.uk/student-resource/navigation-channel/

the intertidal foreshore is apparently important to the Environmental Agency. Therefore the bridge should preferably not do too much damage to that area.

might consider incorporating art deco elements to fit in better with the surroundings and with the power station… This is not necessary, but it is one way of making sure the bridge does not look out of place.

The north side of option 2 is perfect for building the bridge, however on the south side there is a boat pier in the way ._.

 

Advantages & disadvantages of the 3 options for alignments:

option 1:
+ cheapest to build since it is just an extension of the rail bridge
+ least disruptive to view of power station of the 3 options
– will disrupt trains whilst being built
– nobody likes walking next to fast moving trains
– it is the furthest away from Pimlico station

option 2:
+ Provides shortest & most direct route across the river
+ on the north side there is a lot of empty space with no buildings behind the road where the bridge can be built. this allows for a spacious ramp or other such thing.
+ closer to Pimlico station than option 1
+ very close to several bus stops and a bicycle station on the north side
– further from the station than option 3
– there is a pier on the south side in the position where the bridge would land. The pier will be used frequently once the area is regenerated. Also the pier holds those 2 famous cranes, which will not be moved.
– is most disruptive to the view of the power station

option 3:
+ closest to the station of the 3 options
+ does not disrupt the view as much as option 2
+ on the north side it is close to 2 cycle stations and several bus stops
+ after the area on the south bank is developed there will still be room for the bridge to land there
– this is the longest option & therefore potentially the most expensive
– there is not as much room as in option 2 for building a ramp or other means of getting high enough above the water.
final decision on alignment:
although option 2 has by far the best north side for building the bridge, the south side is completely blocked. option 1 I will also dismiss because it is not pleasant to walk next to a train line. Therefore I will use option 3.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Kyriakos Antoniou on: July 8, 2015
Good and practicable decision on which path to follow from the three. Desk study clearly shows all the options advantages and disadvantages for each path and the the rational for finally choosing option 3.

initial concept

3 of the "initial concept" Student Studio Workbook

1.

+ there are no spirals or anything
+ it uses the cool ramp system I drew yesterday
+ it does not take away too much from the view of BPS because there is only 1 tower
– the fact that the bridge is curved means the whole thing might end up looking skewed somehow

potential materials:
alminium for the deck I think. Maybe with glass as well. Walkway mostlty made from steel.
Concrete or steel for the tower
Steel cables
2.

+ has sightseeing towers with elevators
+ the elevators can be used instead of havin gto go up the spiral
– it has a spiral on both sides of the bridge
? if the bridge is only small, is suspension bridge the right choice?
– it will likely detract from the view of BPS quite a lot
– 2 large cylindrical towers are not very elegant ._.

Possible materials:
I think the towers will need to be made from concrete with steel.
The cables can be steel
Glass is needes in the elevators
I think for the one the walkway can have the top made from paving stones like on the street
3.

+ the 2 arches can easily support the curved bridge
+ they look nice
+ you can include more arches on the north side to make it look nicer
– I am unsure of exactly how the supporting cables will go
– if the arch is too large it will ruin the view of BPS from some places

potential materials:
steel for the arches
aluminium or steel for the walkway
it would also maybe be cool to have the arches painted red/rusted and the walkway made from wood or something else with a brown/red colour
4.

+ the dsign looks very nice, especially from the top
– needs other cables on the other side to stop the circle from breaking
– has spirals
+ has elevators, and the elevators point in the direction sof the street on the N side and BPS on the S side, so it is very convenient
+ you could replace the south elevator with the ramp system
+ does not take away from the view of BPS

potential materials:
Concrete for the 2 pillars and the ramps
Possibly these can be made from steel as well?
Concrete or steel for the hoop. I do not know which is better.
Steel cables
glass and metal for the walkway – aluminium?
5.

+ like option 1, it does not detract too much from the view of BPS
– is has spiral type things
+ but they are kind of cool
– the tower needs to be supported on the north side as well
+ it uses the ramp system

potential materials:
steel or concrete for the pillars
steel cables
aluminium or maybe wooden walkway

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Kyriakos Antoniou on: July 9, 2015
Good use of sketches to show the different options, which then helped you understand more which is the most appropriate option for the area.
Comment by Ethan Samama on: July 8, 2015
note to self: coloured glass tiles for walkway

calculations and construction

4 of the "calculations and construction" Student Studio Workbook

erasmus bridge:

longest span = 284m

height = 139m

width = 33.8m

 

 

a small cable stayed pedestrian bridge

span = 60m

width = 3.5m

height = 24m

(http://www.atkinsglobal.com/~/media/Files/A/Atkins-Global/Attachments/sectors/roads/library-docs/technical-journal-1/conceptual-design-of-cable-stayed-pedestrian-bridge-at-taunton-somerset.pdf)

 

bridge of Strings:

longest span = 160m

height = 118m

width = 15m

 

height = span*width / k
24 = 60*3.5 / k
k = 8.75 (for footbridge)

if s = 280
and w = 5
then
h = 280*5 / 8.75
h = 160m

 

therefore, my bridge:

longest span = ~280m

width = 5m

height = 160? yes.

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1DGVQTRLNI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRJ_Ws7xy5U

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c677qQKgTaQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLxhF4LRzF4

 

 

concrete towers: £255,999
lightweight concrete towers: £ 426,665
steel walkway: £1,520,376
stainless steel walkway: £4,561,128

concrete + steel :          £1,776,375
lightweight + steel :       £1,947,041
concrete + stainless :    £4,817,127
lightweight + stainless : £4,987,793
-> it there a cheaper way to stop steel from rusting?
– yes. painting

-> is the amount we save on foundations enough to justify spending more on concrete?.
— Probably it is worth spending the 200,000 considering the lightweight is 100T less heavy.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_bridges_in_the_world

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Kyriakos Antoniou on: July 10, 2015
Good logic for assuming height of towers. Figures for material cost look rational.

organise and present

5 of the "organise and present" Student Studio Workbook

thank you kyriakos you were a wonderful supervisor and I really enjoyed my week here

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Shanique Smith on: July 17, 2015
Completed

Day 1- Finding the Site and Initial research of foot bridges

1 of the "Day 1- Finding the Site and Initial research of foot bridges" Student Studio Workbook

Find the Site

The proposed footbridge is to be located between the Grosvenor Railway Bridge, and the Vauxhall Road Bridge to the East.

Research

The Millennium bridge began construction in late 1998 and was opened in June 2000. The final cost of the Build was £18.2 million (2.2 million over budget). The bridge design was the winner of a competition organised by the Southwark council and RIBA competitions, the winning design being from a coalition of Arup (Civil Engineers), Fosters and partners (architectural firm), and Sir Anthony Caro (abstract sculptor). It is located between Southwark and Blackfriars bridge.

This suspension bridge was one of the first pedestrian bridges to be built in London for more than a century. the bridge is 144m long with a 4m wide aluminium deck. The sag in the middle of the 4 steel cables either side of the deck is 2.3m, giving a dip ratio of 63:1. The cables either end are anchored into the river bank and is propped up by 2 river supports. It was built with the two river supports being constructed first, and then having the steel cables attached between them.

The bridge had to be closed shortly after opening due to the oscillations caused by pedestrian traffic. The sideways movement caused when a large crowd of people. Correlation between footsteps on the bridge caused the initial sideways movement, which led onto people walking synchronised further magnifying the problem. It is similar to when soldiers march across a suspension bridge, which is why they are told to break ranks.

There were 2 potential solutions to this problem. First, stiffening the whole structure. This solution was simply unfeasible as the bridge would need to be at least 10 times stiffer laterally and would change how the bridge would look, maybe compromising the views in the centre of the bridge. Secondly, is deploying passive dampening measures to the bridge. The Millennium Bridge uses 2 different types of dampening, viscous dampers and tuned mass damper. The viscous dampening are located around the bridge and involve pistons moving to counteract the lateral movement of the bridge. The tuned mass damper is located beneath either end of the bridge and dissipates any vertical movement of the bridge.

Reference: London Millennium bridge Arup group http://www.londonmillenniumbridge.com/index.html

Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist bridge which spans the river Tyne in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It was opened to the public on 17th September 2001 costing £22 million to build. It was designed by Wilkinson & Eyre (architects) and Gifford and partners (consulting engineers).

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a tilt bridge to allow river traffic to move beneath it. Each open and close takes 4.5 minutes to complete, tilting through a 40 degree angle. It has 8 electric motors which operate the tilt. It stretches 105m across the Tyne and has a height of 45m in its unopened state. The arch of the bridge is constructed from 9 parabolic fabricated steel box section welded together and is then supported with 18 steel cables to the steel deck. The bridge was constructed 6 miles up stream and was lifted in one large piece to the site by the Asian Hercules II floating crane and lowered into position. the tolerance for the bridge is +/- 2mm. The overall mass of the bridge is in the region of 800 tonnes. The concrete foundations at either end extend for more than 30m beneath the ground, anchoring it to the river bed. Peter Curran CEng, BSc, MICE, MIStructE was the project manager for the build and was one of the key players in its design and construction.

Infinity Bridge is a pedestrian and cycle bridge across the River Tees in Stockton-On-Tees. It links Teesdale business park and the University of Durham on the south bank with the £320 million redevelopment on the north side of the bank. The overall cost of the bridge was £15 million. Construction began in June 2007 with it being formally opened on 16th may 2009. The bridge design was subjected to a competition, the brief being for a prestigious, iconic,, landmark footbridge. The winner being Expedition Engineering and Spence Associates. A number of firms assisted with the design of the bridge.

The bridge is a dual tied arch bridge, the two different sized arches have a precast concrete decking suspended between it. The arches are constructed form weathering steel plate, to protect form corrosion and decay. Due to this plating, the lifespan of the bridge is 120 years. The bridge has a span of 240m, width of 5m (4m between the handrails), and stands at its highest point 40m  above the river below (32m in height). The cables connecting the arch to the deck are 30mm diameter high strength steel cables. White Young Green, an architectural firm, project managed the build for the bridge.

The bridge was constructed by using a temporary jetty to move material out into the river. Each steel arch is made from 4 pieces of fabricated steel, welded together. The first was put in place in June 2008, used to stabilise the canter lever in the centre. the second arch was welded together on site and then lifted into position using the Gottwald AK680 crane. The reinforced concrete decking was formed on site using 3 steel made moulds. they were then floated out in to the river on a temporary jetty and raised up into position. they were then welded together.

Golden Jubilee Bridge is a pedestrian bridge which spans the River Thames. It is two walkways, positioned either side of the Hungerford Rail bridge. The original footbridge was taken down due to it being narrow, dilapidated, and dangerous. A competition was held for new footbridges to be constructed, which Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands and engineers WSP Group won. The two bridges were opened in 2002 at a cost of approximately £40 million.

There were initial problems before construction could even go ahead. They had to make sure that during construction there was no disruption to rail traffic on the Hungerford Bridge, the potential danger of unexploded WW” bombs in the Mud beneath the Thames, and the close proximity to the Bakerloo tube line. To begin with, London Underground were not comfortable with how close (15m) piling would be to the Bakerloo line for one of the river supports. The design was then changed so that the support was no longer in the riverbed, but was moved to the river bank instead.

The river support towards the south bank is surrounded in concrete to protect it from any potential impact from river traffic. The Two 300m decks were put into place by essentially dragging each 50m section across the river. This method is called incremental launching. When each section was in place they were held there by 6 temporary steel and concrete platforms until the pylons were raised into position where upon the decking was raised up. The pylons are outwardly facing, with steel cables fixing them to the decking. As the pylons are outwardly facing, the steel cables are under tension. the deck is held in place by affixing them to the columns on the rail bridge, this however provides no support to the bridge.

 

 

 

(more…)

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Matthias Ludin on: July 13, 2015
Well done Albert. We can probably discuss some key ratios (like dip ratio at the Millenium bridge) a bit further. These kind of geometrical ratios can help you to get an idea how tall a structure has to be and if the structural type is feasibile for the site.
Comment by Albert Phillipson on: July 13, 2015
Link to borehole records located on the south bank outside Battersea Power Station http://scans.bgs.ac.uk/sobi_scans/boreholes/588811/images/12209906.html Could not get my document for the map attached

First day’s work

1 of the "First day’s work" Student Studio Workbook

 

Word Documents which work is on:

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by David Wesbter on: July 14, 2015
All looks good, Daniel. Keep up the good work. Just wondering if you found all three locations (tube stations) on the northern side of the Thames to be of equal importance to pedestrians? Looking forward to seeing more from you on this project.

What is on site

1 of the "What is on site" Student Studio Workbook

1.) An excavator.

They are mainly used for digging. It has a long mechanical arm that can use many different types of buckets depending on the size of the hole that needs to be dug.

2.) A mobile crane.

A mobile crane is a crane that can move. It isn’t as tall as a tower crane but they are much more flexible and can be as powerful as one.

3.) Flatbed lorry.

A flat bed lorry is a lorry that is designed to move large materials and other construction machines to the site. This is because the lorry has no sides, back or roof.

4.) An aerial working platform.

An aerial working platform is a machine that safely lifts construction workers to a specific height. This eliminates the danger of falling from a height while working.

5.) A concrete pump.

Concrete is two and half times heavier than water. Luckily, a concrete pump can be used to pump concrete high up into buildings.

6.) A pile driver.

A pile driver is one of the ways to get piles of concrete or steel columns into the ground. The pile driver does this by hammering the columns into the ground. This is unpopular with nearby residents because it is very loud when it is running.

7.) A roller.

A roller is used to compress materials to make them stronger and flat. An example of this is if you compress soil using a roller it makes the soil stronger.

8.) Steel beams.

Steel beams are used as the frame work for the building. They are built on foundations that are already in the ground. They are joined by either using nuts and bolts of the steel beams are welded together.

9.) Concrete.

Concrete columns can be made on site unlike steel beams which arrive on a flatbed lorry. The first stage is to make a mould which gives the column/beam its shape, wet concrete is then poured into the mould then left to harden for a few days to harden. After it has hardened the beam/column is complete.

Supervisor Comments

Site Equipment

1 of the "Site Equipment" Student Studio Workbook

On a construction site there are lots of machines and equipment that need to be known about:

  • 1.Tower Crane These cranes are so heavy that they need their own foundations. They stay on the site from the start until the end.
  • 2.Excavator These are machines that are used for digging out big areas. They have lots of different buckets that can go on the end.
  • 3.Mobile Crane This is similar to a tower crane but it can move. They are not as tall as a tower crane but they are a lot more flexible and can be just as powerful.
  • 4.Aerial working platform A big risk on a construction site is falling from a height. An aerial working platform is a machine that lifts workers to the height they need to be at safely.
  • 5. Flat bed lorry Flat bed lorries have no sides, back or roof. It’s used to bring large materials and other construction machines such as excavators to the site.
  • 6.Concrete pump Concrete pumps are pumps that are used to pump concrete high up into the building.
  • 7.Roller A roller is a machine that squashes them down so they’re flat. If it’s used to compress soils then the soil is made stronger.
  • 8.Pile driver Piles are thin steel columns that are used to act as foundations for some constructions. One way to get them into the ground is to hammer them with a pile driver.
  • 9.Continuous flight auger  Another way to get steel piles is to drill a long whole into the ground. Then you fill it with concrete. This is called a continuous flight auger.
  • 10. Steel construction A lot of large buildings are built using a framework of steel beams and columns. They get delivered to site ready made. When the first level of columns are finished, the first row of steel beams can be attached to the columns. All of the steel is joined together by nuts and bolts, or by welding. 
  • 11. Concrete construction Most new buildings will contain at least some concrete, or it could just be the floor. These are different to the steel columns and beams because it can’t be delivered to site ready made. They have to be built on the site. The first stage is to make a mould for the concrete which determines the shape of the concrete beam or column. This mould is called formwork. Steel bars are also put into the formwork to reinforce it. When the mould is finished, wet concrete is poured into the mould covering the steel bars. After a few days, the concrete hardens and the formwork can be removed. The column or beam is ready to be used.
  • 12. Fitting external cladding The cladding is the external surface of a building. It’s part of the ‘building envelope’. This helps to keep the warmth in and the weather outside. There are lots of different types of cladding so the construction method depends on the type of cladding being used. If the external cladding has been decided to be bricks or blocks, these are built in rows, one on top of the other. If the bricks or blocks need to go high up on the outside of the building then aerial buildings or scaffolding can be used. Certain times the cladding is decided to be panels, either glass or metal. These are lifted up by crane and then clipped or bolted into place. This another time when aerial platforms may be used to get workers close to the panel of cladding that is being attached. If the external cladding is plaster or another material that needs to be spread by hand, then scaffolding needs to be put up so the builders can reach.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Site Equipment

1 of the "Site Equipment" Student Studio Workbook

On a construction site there are lots of machines and equipment that need to be known about:

  • 1.Tower Crane These cranes are so heavy that they need their own foundations. They stay on the site from the start until the end.
  • 2.Excavator These are machines that are used for digging out big areas. They have lots of different buckets that can go on the end.
  • 3.Mobile Crane This is similar to a tower crane but it can move. They are not as tall as a tower crane but they are a lot more flexible and can be just as powerful.
  • 4.Aerial working platform A big risk on a construction site is falling from a height. An aerial working platform is a machine that lifts workers to the height they need to be at safely.
  • 5. Flat bed lorry Flat bed lorries have no sides, back or roof. It’s used to bring large materials and other construction machines such as excavators to the site.
  • 6.Concrete pump Concrete pumps are pumps that are used to pump concrete high up into the building.
  • 7.Roller A roller is a machine that squashes materials down so they’re flat. If it’s used to compress soils then the soil is made stronger.
  • 8.Pile driver Piles are thin steel columns that are used to act as foundations for some constructions. One way to get them into the ground is to hammer them with a pile driver.
  • 9.Continuous flight auger  Another way to get steel piles is to drill a long whole into the ground. Then you fill it with concrete. This is called a continuous flight auger.
  • 10. Steel construction A lot of large buildings are built using a framework of steel beams and columns. They get delivered to site ready made. When the first level of columns are finished, the first row of steel beams can be attached to the columns. All of the steel is joined together by nuts and bolts, or by welding. 
  • 11. Concrete construction Most new buildings will contain at least some concrete, or it could just be the floor. These are different to the steel columns and beams because it can’t be delivered to site ready made. They have to be built on the site. The first stage is to make a mould for the concrete which determines the shape of the concrete beam or column. This mould is called formwork. Steel bars are also put into the formwork to reinforce it. When the mould is finished, wet concrete is poured into the mould covering the steel bars. After a few days, the concrete hardens and the formwork can be removed. The column or beam is ready to be used.
  • 12. Fitting external cladding The cladding is the external surface of a building. It’s part of the ‘building envelope’. This helps to keep the warmth in and the weather outside. There are lots of different types of cladding so the construction method depends on the type of cladding being used. If the external cladding has been decided to be bricks or blocks, these are built in rows, one on top of the other. If the bricks or blocks need to go high up on the outside of the building then aerial buildings or scaffolding can be used. Certain times the cladding is decided to be panels, either glass or metal. These are lifted up by crane and then clipped or bolted into place. This another time when aerial platforms may be used to get workers close to the panel of cladding that is being attached. If the external cladding is plaster or another material that needs to be spread by hand, then scaffolding needs to be put up so the builders can reach.

 

Supervisor Comments

Day 2- Choosing a route

2 of the "Day 2- Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Day 2- Choosing a route

Who are the Stake holders?

Wandsworth’s Council- They are the council on the south bank of the Thames and would need there planning permission for the bridge to go ahead.

Kensington and Chelsea Council- They are the council on the north bank of the Thames and would need there planning permission for the bridge to go ahead. Also as they maintain the Grosvenor Road, the bridge will either end there or fly over above it.

Network Rail- They own and maintain the Grosvenor Railway Bridge, should option 1 be chosen they would be a key stakeholder in the design and construction of the bridge.

London River Services- This is a division of transport for London and manage all public transport on the Thames. Any construction would affect the people who apply for licences from the London River Services.

Environment Agency- Any new bridge in the Thames will affect the way the water in the Thames moves. It needs to be made sure that no construction will affect the flood protection already in place, such as the intertidal foreshore.

The River Trust- Charity organisation which helps to maintain inland water ways in England and Wales.

Battersea Power Station- The Bridge is for the benefit of the redevelopment of Battersea Power Station. So they have a big say as they are the clients.

Transport for London- During construction there may be disruption to the bus routes on Grosvenor road.

Residence of 111 Grosvenor Road, Paxton Terrace, and Churchill Road- These people will be directly affected by construction is, the bridge goes over into Churchill Garden Road.

Specification

  1. The bridge should come in on an estimated budget of £20 million. (figured based on the cost of the Millennium Bridge and the Golden Jubilee Bridges)
  2. The bridge should try to use the shortest span available to it, trying to minimise material and the cost of it.
  3. Be available for pedestrian and cyclists to cross from the north bank to the south and vice versa.
  4. Have sufficient width to cope with the volume of pedestrian and cyclists crossing into the redevelopment at Battersea
  5. Minimise disruption to the A3212 Grosvenor Goad, Rail traffic on the Grosvenor Rail Bridge, The redevelopment going on at Battersea, and any river traffic bellow during the construction phase.
  6. Link up with the Thames path for easy access for pedestrians and cyclists.
  7. Be within easy walking distance of Pimlico tube stations.
  8. Compliment the surrounding structures, in particular the Art Deco design of Battersea Power Station.
  9. Not compromise the existing flood defence system, and either be easily adaptable to any future flood defence scheme or be built with change in mind.
  10. The deck must be a minimum of 4m above the height of the water at mean high water spring to allow adequate room for river traffic operating.

River Characteristics

The River Thames at this point is tidal, which means that the depth of the river changes daily. Based on information of the depth of the river at the Millennium Bridge, the depth at mean high water spring is 3.88m. This is when there is a Spring tide which occurs every 2 weeks, 2 or 3 days after a new or full moon.

The perpendicular distance of the river from the bank is approximately 145m. The navigable distance needed for river traffic is 40m either side of the middle of the river, where it is deepest. Therefore it is likely that 2 piers would be constructed, one towards the north, the other the south. In order for the river traffic to have sufficient manoeuvrability in the navigable part, piers should be constructed no further than 30m from each bank.

The bedrock of the river and the surrounding banks are that of the London Clay Formation. This is a good material for piling through, which would be the highly likely choice for foundations for the bridge. It is susceptible to change due to the water content in it. If it were particularly dry the clay would shrink and retract which would affect the stability of the piles. Equally, the clay would expand if the moisture content was high. The expansion and contraction could lead to potential cracking of the foundations and the bridge on which it sits upon. There are a total of 12 concrete piles on the northern side, and a further 16 on the south side for the Millennium Bridge, measuring in length 28m below the ground, 2.1m in diameter. The piles were reinforced 3m steel caps, to reduce the overall length of the pile. The 2 piers for the Millennium Bridge have piles stretching 18m down, again with a 3m steel cap on top.

There are three tunnels which run beneath the Thames at Battersea. These were utility tunnels used by the power station when it was in use. One was used to transport steam from the power station to the Churchill Gardens. The other two tunnels were there as a conduit for high voltage cables to feed the north side of the river. There if a further forth tunnel which leads from Battersea to Pimlico tunnel owned by Thames water. Another underground passage, Thames Water London ring main, is used as a major part of the transport of water in London. All of this underground engineering will affect the position of the Bridge and the foundations being dug will have to have no interference with them. A geological survey will need to be carried out to accurately map out the position of these tunnels so that they won’t be affected.

There is a working jetty with regular boats mooring at it which is in front of the power station, where there are two cranes upon it. These are Grade 2 listed structures and are an important part of the industrial heritage of Battersea Power Station. The cranes are currently undergoing restoration due to hazardous material found on them and will be returned in the latter part of 2017. Any bridge would have to end on the south side either to the east or west of the pier as it cannot interfere with the listed feature.

Distance of proposed routes from Pimlico underground station to Grosvenor Road

  • Route 1: 1.1 km, walk time of 13 minutes, cycle time of 4 minutes
  • Route 2: 1.1 km, walk time of 14 minutes, cycle time of 5 minutes
  • Route 3: 0.9 km, walk time of 11 minutes, cycle time of 4 minutes

Distance proposed routes from Pimlico underground station to Churchill Garden Road

  • Route 1: 0.9 km, walk time of 11 minutes, cycle time of 4 minutes
  • Route 2: 0.85 km, walk time of 11 minutes, cycle time of 4 minutes
  • Route 3: 0.8, km, walk time of 10 minutes, cycle time of 4 minutes

Choosing the route

Route 1

Advantages,

  • Much of the support for the structure can come from the existing the Grosvenor Railway Bridge.
  • The view of Battersea Power Station will not be blocked.
  • The Piers needed will not be affected by any tunnels, or other underground activity.
  • Residence of Grosvenor road will have little disruption to their property as the end of the bridge will pass them by.
  • South landing avoids the Grade 2 listed jetty and cranes.

Disadvantages,

  • There will be disruption to the rail activity on the Grosvenor Railway Bridge.
  • Added danger of working in a close proximity to live railway lines.
  • It is the furthest in terms of distance from Pimlico Underground station, where the majority of its users would be coming from.
  • The south end of the bridge is furthest from the planned housing infrastructure.

Route 2

Advantages,

  • It is the shortest span for a bridge, meaning it will cost less and consume less materials.
  • Will lead directly beneath Battersea Power Station, giving an aesthetically pleasing appeal to the bridge.

Disadvantages,

  • Little room for bridge access on the northern side if the bridge ends in Grosvenor Road.
  • If Bridge flies above Grosvenor Road, residence will be directly affected by the bridge as their property is in the way.
  • Not perfectly positioned for pedestrians coming from Pimlico Underground station.
  • The bridge will end where the jetty currently is. This is where the Grade 2 listed cranes are situated.
  • There is an underground tunnel as well the Thames Water London ring main. Piling would be in directly above the tunnel and the water main.

Route 3

Advantages,

  • The direction of the bridge will benefit the flow of pedestrians coming from Pimlico Underground Station.
  • It is closest for commuters coming from Pimlico Underground Station.
  • There is a greater space on the north bank for the end of the bridge to land at.
  • Reduced threat to residence of Grosvenor Road and other adjoining roads.
  • South landing avoids the Grade 2 listed jetty and cranes.

Disadvantages,

  • It being the furthest span (340 m), it will be the most expensive to build.
  • Piles on the south side will be close to the Battersea to Pimlico Tunnel and the Thames Water London ring main.
  • Additional support and strength will be needed as the bridge will be on an angle to the banks and not perpendicular.

Based upon the advantages and disadvantages of the 3 proposed routes, the route to be selected is number 3. This choice is based a number of reasons. Firstly, the landing on the north side can easily join up to the Thames path without taking out much of the existing path way. Secondly, there will be minimal demolition, if any, of residential property. Due to the extra space as well, there will not be need for the bridge to fly over in Churchill Road behind. Also as this bridge will primarily be used by pedestrians coming from Pimlico Underground Station, the angled landing will ease people onto the bridge easier as well as being closer than the other two proposed routes. This bridge will be more complex to design and construct due to the angle of it and the length of it, this will incur a higher cost. But due to vast development scheme currently going on at Battersea, the cost will be worth it.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Matthias Ludin on: July 14, 2015
Good work Albert. I like the clear structure in your workbook. Try to use all of these informations to find a good bridge concept tomorrow.

Second Days Work

2 of the "Second Days Work" Student Studio Workbook

 

Word Documents which work is on:

Desk study and partial risk assesment

 

Choosing an alignment

 

Reflective Diary day 2

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by David Wesbter on: July 15, 2015
Just read your work from yesterday. All looks good :)

Third Days Work

3 of the "Third Days Work" Student Studio Workbook

Word Documents:

Factors of design

Factors of design cont.

SKETCHED DESIGNS

LOGISTICS

Dimensions

Supervisor Comments

Comment by David Wesbter on: July 16, 2015
Really good work again - i liked your "Factors of design cont." and "Sketched Designs" documents. Have you considered transport of somewhat preassembled parts via the river? Is this allowed or possible? Do you think 3.0m is enough width for cyclists in both directions and pedestrians? I'm looking forward to seeing what's next and liked the sketched up truss that you showed me today. Looking good.

Fourth Days Work

4 of the "Fourth Days Work" Student Studio Workbook

Word Documents:

ROUGH CALCULATIONS

CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by David Wesbter on: July 17, 2015
Nice one!

Research and Reflective Diary

1 of the "Research and Reflective Diary" Student Studio Workbook

Research

  1. Millennium Bridge (steel suspension bridge)
  • The bridge has a shallow profile due to supporting cables below deck level – this allows the bridge to comply with height restrictions and ensures pedestrians’ views are not restricted when on the bridge.
  • The main span of the bridge is 144m, and the total length in 325m.
  • The choice of materials contribute to apparent lightness of the bridge. The deck is made of aluminium, and the cables of steel (often the case for cables in suspension bridges).
  • The bridge only needs to be strong enough to carry pedestrians (relatively light load)
  • Construction of the bridge began 1998 – the bridge subsequently opened in 2000.
  • The chief engineer was Tony Fitzpatrick
  1. Gateshead Millennium Bridge
  • The bridge is known as ‘Blinking Eye Bridge’ due to the shape and tilting nature of the bridge.
  • It was the world’s first rotating bridge – opens to allow large boats to pass under it.
  • It consists of a steel arch which supports a curved steel deck. The curved deck, although providing a non-direct route for pedestrians, is crucial in providing sufficient height above water level in its upright position.
  • The Millennium Bridge was designed to meet specific constraints:
  1. Needs to be 4.5m above spring high tides in its closed position.
  2. Nothing can be built on Gateshead quayside.
  3. The deck should have a max slope of 1:20 to allow for disabled access.
  • The main span of the bridge is 105m, the total length is 126m
  • The bridge was lifted into place in one piece by the Asian Hercules II – one of the world’s largest floating cranes – and constructed in a shipyard 6.5km down the Tyne from the site.
  • The lift-in-one scheme was adopted for two main reasons:
  1. It was safer – no major operations were carried out over water.
  2. The waterway only had to be closed for a short amount of time.
  • The disadvantage of the lift-in-one scheme was that it demanded very high tolerances and was dependent on weather conditions.
  • Constructed in 2001.
  • The lift was designed to mimic support conditions used throughout assembly so that the bridge did not ‘feel’ it was being lifted.
  1. Infinity Bridge
  • Total length = 240m, longest span = 120m.
  • It is a dual bowstring bridge, which when it reflects off of the surface of the water, produces an ‘infinity’ symbol, hence why the name was appointed.
  • Construction took place between June 2007 and December 2008.
  • A temporary jetty was built on the south bank to enable building of the cofferdam, a watertight shield build around underground underwater structures, e.g. a dock wall, where the water is pumped out so work can be carried out in the day.
  • The arches were manufactured from weathering steel, which is advantageous due to its very low maintenance, initial and whole-life cost benefits, speed of construction, attractive appearance, and environmental and safety benefits.
  1. Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges
  • The Golden Jubilee bridges are examples of the type of bridge design option one would provide. The majority of the footbridges’ support came from a system of pylons which were attached to the pre-existing railway bridge. The pylons are outward-facing, which is what gives the bridges their specific shapes.
  • The chief engineers in the design came from WSP Group
  • The construction of the bridges was complicated, particularly because it needed to keep the railway bridge operating without interruption.
  • The 300m reinforced concrete decks were raised using the innovative “incremental launching” method. The incremental launching method (ILM) has many advantages over conventional construction, including creating minimal disturbance to surroundings, providing a more concentrated work area for superstructure assembly, and possibly increased worker safety given the improved erection environment. The ILM involves assembly of the bridge superstructure on one side of an obstacle to be crossed, and then movement (or launching) of the superstructure longitudinally into its final position. If I go for option 1, I will use this method of construction.
  • The 50m sections of deck were pulled across the river using a 250m long steel truss until the deck spanned the river, and the deck was supported by temporary piers made of steel and concrete.
  • The pylons were installed using a floating crane (may be important in an area of limited access such as central London) and then the decks were jacked up to enable connection.
  • The deck was lowered into its final position and then the piers were removed.
  • The deck is secured in place by steel collars fitted around (although not supported by) the pillars of the railway bridge; the collars are themselves attached to the bridge’s foundations by tie-down rods. The entire structure is thus held in place by exploiting the tensions between the pylons and the various stay rods and struts.
  1. Samuel Beckett Bridge
  • The shape of the spar and its cables is said to evoke an image of a harp lying on its edge.
  • With a span of 123 m, it is a cable-stayed bridge.
  • The main concrete support in the river consists of bored concrete piles, with a concrete pile cap supporting a circular concrete pier of varying diameter. A large sheet piled cofferdam was constructed in the river to enable the pier to be built. The main support pier and both abutments at the quay walls rest on piles bored up to twenty metres deep, creating a firm footing in the limestone rock under the river bed.
  • The bridge deck was fabricated in one piece in Rotterdam, Netherlands by Hollandia. It was then moved on to a barge and towed to Dublin. A section of the bridge deck was wider than the open span of the East-Link Bridge through which it had to traverse. This was accomplished by bringing the barge through the open span at high water and ensuring the deck was above the East-Link deck. The weight of the new bridge was then divided between two barges allowing a space between them. At high tide the deck was floated over the fixed concrete column in the river. As the tide receded the weight of the bridge was transferred to the concrete column, following which the barges floated away. The deck was then fixed to the rotation mechanism.

Types of bridges:

  1. Beam bridge:
  • Oldest and simplest bridge – vertical piers and horizontal beams.
  • ADV: easy to build and inexpensive
  • DIS: limited span (can be used for larger crossings by adding additional piers) and don’t allow large vehicles to pass underneath.
  1. Truss bridge:
  • Built up by joining length of material together to form open framework – usually consisting of triangles for rigidity.
  • ADV: very strong and makes efficient use of materials.
  • DIS: complex construction, high maintenance and blocks view.
  1. Arch bridge:
  • ADV: very strong and can be built from wide range of materials, also noted for its appearance.
  • DIS: Limited spans unless multiple arches are used and uneconomical use of materials.
  1. Suspension bridge:
  • ADV: strong and large span.
  • DIS: expensive and complex.
  1. Cantilever:
  • ADV: easy construction at difficult crossings.
  • DIS: complex structures difficult to maintain.

Reflective Diary

Today I worked mainly independently. I met my supervisor, Clare, who chatted to me about the work she does, which interestingly is rather similar to the work I am producing. I also met Claudia, who is doing a summer placement here, who gave me valuable advice about engineering as a student.

My focus of today was researching bridges. I wanted to see how different bridges had been designed according to their location and span, among several other factors. I learnt about the different main types of bridges, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as construction methods adopted in different bridge projects that tackle different problems. Something I found particularly interesting was learning about the Gateshead Millennium Bridge – I learnt that the bridge actually rotates in order to meet requirements for boats to travel underneath, and that the bridge was constructed using the lift-in-one scheme, where the whole bridge was lifted into place (having been constructed off site) using a floating crane.

This made me feel very excited about the different projects it is possible to get involved in within a career in structural engineering, and interested to learn more.

Tomorrow I would like to learn more about the deciding factors which go into bridge construction, because I am already aware that the factors are limiting and complex.

I feel to get even more enjoyment out of tomorrow I would like to hear more about people’s real life projects that they are involved in, as I only currently know about Clare’s, however Clare said that she may set up some meetings for me which would be highly beneficial to get the most out of my work experience.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clare Taylor on: August 3, 2015
Well research work. It might be adding Cable Stayed Bridges and Stressed Ribbon Bridges to your list.

Choosing a route

2 of the "Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

01. I completed a desk study to decide on an alignment out of options 1, 2 and 3. I considered various factors within my study, in order to eliminate options and ultimately decide where I would build my bridge.

  • I used google maps to measure the distance of the different options from the three nearest train/underground stations (Pimlico, Victoria and Sloane Square). Although option three is the closest to Sloane square, it is the furthest from the other two stations, whilst option 1 and 2 are equally close to all three stations.
  • I compared other modes of transport, bus and cycling. Looking at London cycle routes, I could see that all three locations would be on cycle routes. Option 1 and 2 are very close to bus stops (2 either side of option 2) however option 3 is slightly further away.
  • I used street view to see the affect my bridge would have on the view of Battersea Power Station, and only Option 1 would prevent the view being at all reduced.
  • I measured the length of river each bridge would have to span, both 1 and 2 would only need to span about 250m, whilst option 3 would span almost 430m which is significantly greater and therefore could be significantly more expensive.
  • I looked at the obstacles surrounding the area: there was a working pier of considerable height that could not be disturbed and an underground tunnel which both clashed with the construction of Option 2, so 1 and 3 are more suitable in this respect.
  • I looked at the ease of construction, which is very difficult to determine. Although Option 1 could be the easiest, in the sense that it simply needs to be attached to the existing railway (therefore no new foundations are required), this railway bridge may not have been intended to carry the extra load, so design modifications, such as using lightweight materials in construction, would have to be considered. As well as this, the challenge of not disturbing the rail services would require innovative construction methods to be carried out. On the other hand, due to the obstacles present, the construction of option 2 may appear more difficult, making option 3 the easiest construction option, however this bridge would also be the longest, meaning it may require a more complex design.

Taking all these factors into consideration, I decided that the most feasible option would be option 1, as it would be relatively cheap and easy to construct, and the design would have less restrictions as it will not block any view of the power station. As well as this, there are no obstacles to consider, as there is a small amount of clear space either side of where the bridge would be located.

02. I feel my time management has gone well today, as I managed to get everything done as I had read the section brief the day before to ensure I knew what I was doing today. To improve, I could create a timetable tomorrow to ensure I stick to a schedule.

03. I learnt a lot about what it is to be an civil engineer today, both from my independent work and an interview I conducted with a structural engineer within the company. My independent work taught me the decision making skills required of a civil engineer, and how every decision will have advantages and disadvantages, whether it be cost, durability, aesthetics or convenience. From my interview I learnt a lot about how to actually become an civil engineer, from studying civil engineering in University to becoming a chartered engineer. I also learned a lot about the broad range of careers possible within civil engineering, which I found particularly interesting.

04. I have now begun to think about the concept of my actual bridge, and have designed some access points, and come up with a few ideas of how my bridge will be attached to the existing rail bridge. Tomorrow I hope to refine my ideas, as well as come up with an effective lightweight material to use. I think I would like to design a cable-stayed or suspension bridge, so I would like to compare the two within the parameters of my location.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clare Taylor on: August 6, 2015
Rose as logically thought through all the possibilities. Good work

Cable-stayed footbridge

3 of the "Cable-stayed footbridge" Student Studio Workbook

Why I chose cable-stayed?

  • Iconic and eye-catching – different to other nearby bridges.
  • More easily constructed than a suspension bridge and does not require as much cable for its size.
  • Very well supported, does not require as many piers or as thick a deck as a beam bridge would (saving money)
  • Allows the bridge to have piers not in the navigation stream, meaning if the existing rail bridge was taken down it would not be in breach of this requirement.
  • Does not rely on attachment to the existing bridge – although this may be easier and more economical, I realised this would severely reduce the lifespan of the bridge, as it would rely on foundations that are firstly significantly older than the bridge and may not be designed to compensate for this bridge.
  • Very strong.
  • Originally my cable-stayed bridge was going to have two pylons either side of the bridge, however I decided the extra two pylons were unnecessary upon further examination, and so to cut costs I limited myself to two pylons.

Why did I choose steel and concrete as materials?

  • Concrete used for piers and foundations (precast to allow ease of construction). This is because concrete is very strong under compression (which is the type of force acting on these features) and significantly cheaper than steel, as well as not easily-corroded like steel is, which is important when it will be permanently in water.
  • Steel was used for the deck, cables and pylons. Originally was going to use GFRP for the deck, as i was going to directly attach the bridge to Grosvenor Bridge, and so the lightweight properties of GFRP would reduce the turning effect this would provide. I’ve since discovered that GFRP is very expensive, and it is possible to make the bridge more independent and less reliant of the existing rail bridge, so I decided steel was a better alternative, as due to its strength, it produces lightweight decks and strong pylons and cables.

How I decided on my access.

  • I chose access ramps with a 1 in 20 incline as this is the necessary requirement for wheelchair access. I wanted to create a bridge which is very easily accessed by all pedestrians and cyclists, and this design provided that.
  • The ramp on the North side is long and straight, as there is little room anywhere on the North side for any other style of ramp. To create space for this ramp, I have merged the two cycle lanes on the north side of the road into one, and converted the northern -most cycle lane into a pedestrian lane, meaning the existing pedestrian lane can be converted into a ramp.
  • On the south side, I have opted for a curved ramp, as with the planned Battersea development there is enough space for this, and this way I have room for the cables from the nearby pylon to be attached.

Supervisor Comments

Day 1 Diary

1 of the "Day 1 Diary" Student Studio Workbook

Day 1: Research:

Battersea Power Station Development

 This Power Station has not been in use for decades. It will therefore hopefully be turned into new homes, offices, retail stores, restaurants, hotels, community facilities etc.

The south side of the river where the power station is situated is poorly served by public transport on, whereas Victoria, Pimlico and Sloane Square train stations can be found on the North side of the river. Therefore a footbridge is to be built linking the two banks of the Thames.
The Infinity Bridge:

Shape/ Type:

The bridge is a dual, tied arch or bowstring bridge. It functions as a public pedestrian and cycle footbridge.

Lighting:

The lighting scheme was designed by Speirs and Major Associates. The bridge’s handrails and footway are lit with blue-and-white LED lights which change colour (due to sensors) as pedestrians cross the bridge. The white painted bridge arches are also lit up by white metal halide lights which reflect in the water to form the infinity symbol ∞

Location:

The bridge stretches across the River Tees

Dimensions:

The total length of the bridge consists of 272m of concrete decking. The total span of the bridge is 180m and the decking has a width of 5m. (See diagram)

Materials:

The arches are built using stainless steel. Stainless steel has very good resistance to corrosion, is easy to work with as it is ductile, and has high tensile strength. The suspended decking is made of precast concrete which is easily coloured, durable, relatively inexpensive, has a high impact resistance and good compressive strength.

Design:

The bridge was designed by Expedition Engineering and Spence Associates. They were assisted by numerous other companies including Flint & Neill. The two arches are held together by a reflex piece making them one continuous curve which is a unique feature as no other bridge has quite the same design.

Construction:

The bridge was constructed in 18 months between June 2007 and December 2008 and White Young Green were the project managers.

Brief summary of the construction process:

  • A temporary jetty was built on the south bank
  • The central pier was constructed and the supporting legs were added
  • The first steel arch was made from four pieces of steel welded together and was put in place using a crane
  • The concrete deck panels were cast on site using three steel moulds
  • Using the temporary jetty, panels were floated out on a small barge and placed into position
  • The concrete deck sections were joined together using steel welds and adhesive

Different Types of bridges:

Suspension Bridge:

The suspension bridge requires two cables strung across high towers on each side of the area to be bridged. The deck is then hung on vertical suspenders attached to these suspension cables. The cables are in tension and the towers are in compression. Suspension bridges often have the longest main spans. Simple suspension bridges are similar but they have no vertical suspenders e.g. a rope bridge.

Arch Bridge:

There are curved supports (abutments) on each end of the bridge. They are often built using reinforced concrete or steel. The load of an arch bridge is carried along the curve of the arch to the abutments at the end. When they are built using stone, a key stone is needed to transfer the load along the curve. A through arch bridge is similar – the base of the arch structure is below the deck, but the top rises above it, so the deck passes through the arch. The deck is suspended using cables or beams from the arch.

Beam Bridge:

This is one of the most common bridge forms. When a weight is placed on the beam, the top surface is pushed down (compressed) while the bottom edge is stretched (placed under tension). The further apart the supports of the bridge, the weaker the bridge gets. A simply supported beam has only two supports whereas if two or more beams are joined over supports, the bridge becomes continuous.

Cable Stayed Bridge:

Each have one or more pylons from which suspended cables support the bridge deck. The pylons are in vertical compression and the deck is in horizontal compression whereas the cables are in tension. Cable-stayed bridges look a lot like suspension bridges, but their support cables tie directly to the support towers. Cable-stayed bridges also do not have the potential to have spans as long as the spans in suspension bridges. In a cable-stayed bridge, as the span increases, so does the height of the tower. There are also several different types of cable-stayed bridges and the suspension cables are slightly different in each version.

Truss Bridge:

Truss bridges are made of lots of triangular units. In a truss bridge, the load is supported by bending (like in a beam bridge). The top chords are put under compression whilst the deck and some of the diagonal chords (depending on their direction) are in tension.

 Cantilever:

These bridges are often built with two towers and three spans and the two outer spans are anchored to the ground. Cantilever bridges carry vertical loads almost like beam or truss bridges – by tension forces in the lower chords and compression in the upper chords. However the cantilevers carry their loads by tension in the upper chords and compression in the lower ones

Day 1 Diary:

I was given a tour of the office in the morning and was introduced to several members of the company before being sat down at a desk where I worked on the design project. It is in this way that I was able to get a feel of what the desk-based aspect of working in an engineering company is like which I really enjoyed because of the atmosphere of the office.

I read the context of the design project that I will be working on over the course of the week and I understood the fact that the site being regenerated needs improved access (in the form of a footbridge) so that the site is easier to reach because there is currently no access to public transport in the vicinity.

I used several websites when reading about the ‘Infinity Bridge’ and compiled my findings into a research document. I found out facts such as the dimensions of the bridge, how long it took to build, who designed it and how it was constructed, as well as things like which materials were used and why. I really enjoyed the research aspect of today and found it very interesting.

I also did some research into some of the different types of bridges so that I can make a well-informed decision when it comes to deciding which type of footbridge to build later on in the project. I also tried to understand all about how the forces (mainly tension and compressive forces) come into play with all the different types of bridges and how they each sustain different loads.

I was also shown a really interesting video about the development of a toll bridge over the Mersey. The bridge spans to a length of around 2km and the middle section of the bridge is built as a cable-stayed structure but the two ends are built using a beam structure. The video showed the progress of the building of the bridge and various techniques which are being used. For example, a mould was developed to form the decking as quickly as possible – the mould itself was attached to the bridge and was able to move along as the bridge was built. This significantly reduced the time taken to construct the decking. I thought that some of the construction techniques that were shown in the video were incredibly clever and I think that I would be really interested if I visited a construction site where a bridge was being built.

I thoroughly enjoyed today and am really excited about carrying on with the project tomorrow!

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Miriam Alonso on: August 25, 2015
Well done! Good work! The report is very well organised, structured and written. There are some technical terms I will teach you later related to what you have written in the diary, just for your own knowledge. Otherwise, you are ready to start the second stage! :)

Day 2 Diary

2 of the "Day 2 Diary" Student Studio Workbook

Day 2 Diary:

Today I carried on with the research part of my project and ultimately decided the alignment of the bridge that I will be designing which was very exciting.

There were many factors that I had to take into consideration when deciding where to position the bridge; I started off by re-assessing the main purpose of the bridge and who will be using it. I then had to work out where the majority of the pedestrians and cyclists would be coming from and which bridge position provided the best and easiest access in regards to pavement width and how close the bridge would be to the surrounding underground stations. For each of the alignment options I mapped out the quickest route to the three surrounding stations and calculated the distances and length of time that it would take to walk them. I really enjoyed the calculating aspect of today and the logical approach that I had to take when comparing the potential bridge positions.

Having assessed the accessibility, effect on the environment, cost, difficulty of construction and number of obstacles in the way of each of the bridges, I was able to put all the information into a table and give each bridge position a mark. I ended up choosing alignment number 2 as it scored the highest – 43. I really enjoyed having to independently make the decision but found it very hard as each option had several advantages and disadvantages, meaning that there was no clear winner.

Then I had to talk my supervisor through my decision and justify it.

I then proceeded to write out a list of requirements for the bridge such as the required design, so that it fits in with the surrounding area and the minimum height so that it reaches over the sea wall.

A key part of today was also having to organise my time because there were so many things to get through. At the start of the day, I began by writing a list of everything I had to do and then ordered them in terms of priority. I then allocated a set amount of time for each task and planned my day, making sure there was enough time to get everything done. I mostly managed to stick to the time schedule but next time I will allow extra time for any mishaps or for anything that does not go according to plan. Being able to manage your time is a very useful skill to have and I look forward to putting it into practice more as it can help with other aspects of my life.

I am very much looking forward to beginning the design process tomorrow.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Miriam Alonso on: August 26, 2015
Well done, your report looks very good. The structure, pictures and tables you have included in the report make it very easy to understand and follow. It is clear and very well explained and summarised. As you have seen, there have been loads of different tasks to do in today's stage so it would be interesting if you could include in your diary how you have felt about organising your time. I hope you have enjoyed the decision part and the technique to do it. It can actually be used in many other aspects of life and it is very helpful. As I have said, there was no right option and wrong option. I think you have justified your selected option very well and you can defend it with solid reasons looking at a wide range of different aspects. Well done! Let's move to the next step: design your bridge! Let's discuss it first thing in the morning 

Day 3 Diary

3 of the "Day 3 Diary" Student Studio Workbook

Day 3 Diary:

Today I started the designing section of the project which meant that I eventually came up with a final design for my bridge. I found this very exciting but also challenging.

I started off the day by planning how I could most effectively use my time, just as I did yesterday: I wrote out a list of everything that needed to be done today, prioritised them and allocated time for each task.

First of all, before I started designing, I worked out all the possible types of bridge that I could use, bearing in mind factors such as the length of the river and the ideal position that I had been given for the pier. Then I brain stormed and came up with a few initial design ideas for each type of bridge that I could use. I really enjoyed coming up with the initial designs although I found it hard to be original with my ideas due to the vast number of bridges that already exist!

I then showed the initial designs to my supervisor who pointed out the bridge designs which could work as they were structurally sound and explained why in terms of the forces. She also pointed out the flaws in the other designs and explained why they wouldn’t work so that I could try to correct them. This was very useful as it deepened my understanding of the different types of bridges and the way they each of them work. I learnt that the stability of a bridge is very important and I learnt how to make a bridge more stable by ensuring that it is equally balanced and symmetrical where possible, has cables on both sides, and has as many piers as possible. My 3D drawing skills were definitely put to the test today and I found drawing some of the designs quite hard at times.

I then went on to develop two of the bridge designs in more detail – thinking about how the users would access the bridge and how I would ensure that the ramps decline at a suitable and steady gradient. Finally, after much deliberation, I managed to choose one of the two developed designs to use as my final design!

I had to then start thinking about possible materials to build the bridge out of and start looking at options for the construction process in preparation for tomorrow’s work. I looked at the construction processes and materials used in similar bridges so that I could get a better idea of what the options would be for the bridge that I have designed.

I found today quite challenging on the whole but also very rewarding as I now know what I would want the bridge that I am designing to end up looking like! The tasks that I have been working on so far this week have been very useful because they continually give me glimpses into what life might be like working as an engineer and I am really enjoying it.

I have had a quick read through of what I will be working on tomorrow and I am very much looking forward to using and expanding my maths and physics knowledge when I carry out the calculations regarding the dimensions of the bridge etc.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Miriam Alonso on: August 27, 2015
You have done a great job today. The sketches you have developed are very complete and understandable. They are clear and are drawn in a very good scale. You have also understood the range of spans that each type of bridge can undertake and you have used this knowledge when preparing your sketches. Just keep an eye on the use of piers. It is not right that the more piers the better. Actually, just the required number of piers from the structural point of view need to be provided. Providing more than that would just increase the cost and probably make the bridge look less nice. You have chosen a great design so good luck on the next step of designing it! Well done

Day 4 Diary

4 of the "Day 4 Diary" Student Studio Workbook

Day 4 Diary:

Today has definitely been one of my favourite days so far because I got to carry out loads of calculations which helped me to develop my bridge design. I started off by looking at the cross sections of pre-existing bridges and I chose one cross section to use for my bridge.

Using various set rules and ratios I managed to work out the dimensions of my bridge – it also helped me when I looked at the dimensions of bridges which were a similar shape and size to my bridge because these gave me a better idea of suitable dimensions which I could use.

Having approximated the sizes of each of the elements of the bridge I had to decide which materials to use. Compression and tension play a large role when arch bridges withstand forces and different loads, therefore most of my bridge will be made of steel and concrete which are very strong and resistant when put in tension or compression.

Now that I knew the dimensions and materials of the bridge, I was able to work out the self-weight of the bridge and predict the live loads which the bridge will experience when in use. In this part of today I learnt more of the precautions that engineers take when carrying out calculations such as these. For example, safety factors are used when calculating loads.

Having calculated the total loads, I could approximate the load per hanger and the load at each of the supports. I found it very confusing when I had to deal with a lot of long numbers at the same time so I had to write everything out clearly so that I was able to easily see and understand what each number corresponded to.

I then started to think about the construction of the bridge. I watched a video all about the methods of construction being used for the Mersey Gateway bridge and I looked at construction methods used in other arch bridges to help to give me a better idea of all the different options. I found it very hard to understand the limitations of what can and can’t be done in terms of construction and what can or can’t be constructed on site etc.

Tomorrow I will finalise my construction plan, produce a final drawing of my design and ultimately give a presentation on my bridge!

 

Supervisor Comments

Footbridge Research

1 of the "Footbridge Research" Student Studio Workbook

Research on footbridges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

London Millennium Bridge

  • It is a suspension bridge, however the supporting cables are below the deck level due to height restrictions and in order to improve the view.
  • It has a span of 144 metres
  • The piers are built from concrete and steel, cables from locked coil and decking from aluminium. It was built to be able to hold 5000 people on it at one point.
  • It was opened in 2000. Construction started in 1998
  • The structure was designed by Sir Norman Foster with Sir Anthony Caro and engineers from Arup.
  • The bridge was built by Monberg & Thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine. The bridge is supported by eight highly tensioned cables on each side of the deck, anchored at each abutment and propped by two river supports.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

  • It is a tilt bridge/arch bridge built for pedestrians and cyclists spanning the River Tyne of Newcastle.
  • It has a span of 105 metres
  • The bridge is made out of steel. It is very strong that it can withstand a collision from a 4,000 tonne ship travelling at 4 knots. It has concrete foundations stretching to 30 metres, anchoring it the river bed.
  • It was opened in 2001, construction started in 1998
  • The bridge was designed by Wilkinson Eyre and structural engineer Gifford
  • The bridge was lifted into place in one piece by one of the world’s largest floating cranes. It is powered by eight electric motors.

Infinity Bridge

  • It has an asymmetric double tied-arch and suspended deck
  • It has a span on 120 metres
  • It is made from weathering steel, stainless steel and reinforced concrete.
  • The bridge was opened in 2009, construction began in 2007
  • it was designed by Expedition Engineering
  • It was constructed by Balfour Beatty

 

 

 

Oberhausen Bridge Sculpture

  • It is a stressed ribbon bridge
  • It has a span of 66 metres
  • It is made of steel to be sustainable. There is a low consumption of material because of high bearing capacity.
  • The bridge was opened in 2011
  • It was designed by Schlaich Bergermann and Partner
  • It consists of pre-cast concrete plates, spiral bars and railing made of steel and net cable, – all attached to the stress ribbon. Lightness of the design underlies in the minimalism of the ribbon structure. Tension force of the bridge is removed to the outer tension rods with two high-strengths steel ribbons connected to the inclined supports on both sides of the canal

 

Passerelle Simone de Beauvoir

  • It was a lenticular structure with rotational anchorages in the supports.
  • It was opened in 2006
  • It is a steel footbridge
  • Its designer was Dietmar Feichtinger Architects
  • It was constructed by the Eiffel Company in the Alsace and was transported by canal to its destination. It was put into place in two hours.

 

 

Peace Bridge

  • It is a self-anchored suspension bridge
  • it was opened in 2011
  • The bridge has a span of 250 metres.
  • The bridge was designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects
  • The bridge was built offsite in sections each 32 metres long. The sections were then transported to the river. The centre of gravities were calculated and checked with the dimension with the model before it was all put together.

 

 

Anaklia-Ganmukhuri Bridge

  • The primary structure is a triangulated truss, but it is considered the longest cable-stayed timber bridge in Europe
  • It was completed in 2012
  • Prefabricated and shipped to site from Germany to ensure quality, individual chord elements were no longer than 13.5 metres. Crews assembled the bridge using the patented ‘HESS Limitless’ connection at chord splices.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clotilde Robin on: October 19, 2015
Well done. It is a good research with different structures for footbridges. Now, you can start thinking about which type of structure will be the most relevant for the site. It should be one you like but also that fits well with all the constraints and the landscape.

Choosing A Route

2 of the "Choosing A Route" Student Studio Workbook

Choosing a route

Desk Study

The proposed bridge will serve The Borough of Wandsworth as well as The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. For those living in the new multi million pound housing complex, south of the river, it will allow for an easy commute to Pimlico underground station. Pimlico station is significantly the closest underground station to Battersea Power Station therefore it is important that there is a direct route across the river. The footbridge will also make for a shorter commute to London Victoria or Sloane Square. Once these areas are more accessible, residents from the south of the river will feel more enthusiastic to visit or shop therefore the footbridge will increase business in Kensington and Chelsea. The footbridge will also allow residents from the north of the river to visit Wandsworth. Battersea Park is a fantastic example of somewhere these residents might want to visit, as well as Battersea Power Station itself. The bridge would provide a safe crossing for pedestrians and even cyclists to use at any time of the day.

It would be recommended that the footbridge had a clearance requirement of 9.91m above sea level. The banks on either side of the river are built to protect the surrounding areas from flooding and it is expected that these walls will be made higher. The footbridge design would need to include room for higher banks. This part of the river brings other potential obstacles. There are two main working piers to the east of the railway bridge and a valuable intertidal foreshore which cannot be disturbed. As well as this, there are 3 underground tunnels for services under the sea bed and the main navigation channel, which all need to be kept clear of.

In order to get planning permission, the design of the bridge would need to fit in with the existing surroundings. The Chelsea and Albert bridges compliment the power station which creates the urban environment. Battersea Power Station is an image of art deco design which dates back to the 1930s and it is important that the new footbridge will add more to the environment and enhance this London landmark.

Choosing an alignment option

Option 1 is to attach a new footbridge onto the railway bridge. This would be a good use of existing resources, requiring less materials and probably saving some money. The footbridge wouldn’t ruin the view of the power station any more, and the project would be completed in less time compared with options 2 and 3. However, the railway bridge might be unsettling for the pedestrians as trains would be rushing past at high speeds. Also construction of the railway bridge would disrupt the railway line and this could create a more long term problem due to the age of the railway bridge. The existing bridge might need refurbishment a little earlier than planned as it might not be safe depending on the state of the bridge. If the footbridge was built attached to the railway bridge then it would still be very far from Pimlico station and the commuters would still have to walk very far. The footbridge would be very close to the A3216 and not much safer than the busy road.

Option 2 is to build the footbridge a few hundred metres from the existing railway bridge so that it is just in front of Battersea Power Station. This is the shortest option and it is easy to picture how this alignment would fit with the environment. However here the pavement is very thin which gives little room to crate access to the bridge. It would be a very convenient place for those trying to access the power station however it might block out the view of the power station.

Option 3 is the diagonal alignment and it is by far the longest one therefore it will be the most expensive and it will take the longest to build. However this alignment is most convenient for pedestrian and cyclists travelling to/from Pimlico station across the bridge as it will be right outside. There is lots more space to access the bridge from the pavement where it lands. However because the bridge is so long it may take up a lot more the scenery than the other two options, this could disrupt the view of the power station even more.

I would choose option 2 because it is the shortest possible bridge. The pedestrians will spend the least amount of time on the bridge, which will be beneficial on windy days. The footbridge is not next to the railway bridge therefore there will be less noise so that crossing the bridge can be an experience. Where the pavement is thin, the bridge could have two exits on the north side to maximise this space. This could advantage some pedestrians walking to Pimlico as they are already headed in the correct direction. I think that one of the more popular destinations might be Victoria Station and option 2 is the most convenient bridge for this occasion. In terms of the concern over the disrupted view of the power station; as long as the design of the bridge is similar to the urban environment including the power station, this should not be a problem. I think the destination of the bridge on the south side is a bonus as a lot of people will be visiting the power station.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clotilde Robin on: October 20, 2015
Great! Let's find a good concept tomorrow. I hope you enjoy sketching...

Chosen Design

3 of the "Chosen Design" Student Studio Workbook

Chosen Design

For my initial concept development I sketched 4 footbridges which I thought were appropriate given the environment. During my team meeting I was able to narrow down my designs, this led me to focus on my first option and I was able to further develop the bridge. My chosen design is a cable stayed footbridge with a single pylon. I decided to include only one pylon because the engineering was manageable given the length of the required bridge. The users will access the bridge by a straight 50 metre ramp on the south side (30 metres from Battersea Power Station). On the north side, there will be both a spiral ramp exiting north and a staircase exiting east. The idea behind this design is that the exit to the ramp will be headed towards London Victoria, whereas the staircase will be headed towards Pimlico Underground Station as I believe these are the two most popular destinations of the commuters. The bridge will be divided into two paths by the central pylon and the central stays. Headed north, the left hand side of the bridge will be dedicated to cyclists and the right to pedestrians to keep them safe from the bikes. The pylon will be on the south side of the bridge so that it can blend into the high buildings nearby. It will be made of steel and then painted white so that it can add to the urban environment, while it is looking similar to the chimneys of the power station, it will not destroy the view. The deck of the bridge will be corten steel which is similar to the colour of the factory. The base will be made from dark concrete and the railings with mesh steel and wood.

The bridge will be attached to the banks by extra supports which lay under each side of the bridge, however the pedestrians and cyclists will enter via the ramp and stairway. There is plenty of room for the ramp on the south side, but the pavement on the north side is narrower, hence the spiral ramp and short staircase which split west and east to save space. The bridge will be supported by supports on each bank as well as the base of the pylon, 67 metres from the south side ramp. The weights of the pedestrians will cause tension in the cables which will be induced in the stays, on the opposite side of the pylon. The resultant force will cause a tension down the pylon which will be sent to the ground. This makes it very important to have a solid base in the sand.

This design does not block the navigation tunnel. The footbridge has been adapted to fit the proposed clearance height of 9.91 metres. There is also only one pylon base in the river which makes it better for the environment, simpler to build and easier for boats to pass. The bridge on the banks clear the minimum requirements for the flood barriers, this is why the ramps are necessary to get a 5% decline. 48.2 metres of ramp are required on the south side and 15.5 metres are required on the north side as a result of the spiral ramp.

The construction of the bridge will take place both at the site and in a factory. The steel will be prefabricated in the factory and then transferred to the site in a barge using a crane to erect. The concrete base will need to be constructed onsite and then the steel will be welded together in 10 metre long sections at a time. The cable stay design is useful as the cables can be fitted as the pylon goes up.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clotilde Robin on: October 21, 2015
It's a good concept and a good design. Just a few calculations tomorrow to make sure it does not fall down! Great job!

Interview Questions

4 of the "Interview Questions" Student Studio Workbook

Interview Questions

What do you like the least and most about the profession?

What do you do on a typical day?

What do you find most challenging?

Where did you study?

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clotilde Robin on: October 22, 2015
Great job today! For tomorrow, let's prepare a nice and lively presentation with PowerPoint. It is also part of the engineer's job to produce convincing documents and to be able to present to others.

Bridge Research

1 of the "Bridge Research" Student Studio Workbook

– Read the book “Bridge Engineering – A Global Perspective”

– Talked to Clare about her “Greenwich Swing Bridge”

Millennium Bridge

– Steel suspension bridge (pedestrian)

  • 325m long and 4m wide
  • Maximum 5000 people
  • Tends to sway/swing

– Built between 1998~2002 (£18.2m)

– Design (by Arup)

  • Won the RIBA competition
  • Y-shaped piers
  • Support cables below dock level (shallow profile)
  • Clear view of St Paul’s Cathedral
  • “Blade of Light” towards the cathedral during night

– Material

  • Steel (high tensile strength)
  • Concrete (strong against compression weak against tension)
  • Reinforced concrete (concrete with steel beam support)

 

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

– Tilt bridge (pedestrian and cyclist)

  • World’s first tilting bridge
  • 126m long and 8m wide
  • Weighs more than 800 tonnes

– Built between 1999~2001 (£22m)

  • The bridge was assembled elsewhere and was brought for instalment by Asian Hercules II

– Design (by Wilkinson Eyre Architects and Gifford)

  • Tilted by electric motors
  • Top of the arch 50 m above water
  • Special trap to catch litter when the bridge is tilted
  • World’s first tilt bridge
  • Able to withstand collision from a 4000 ton ship travelling at 4 knots

– Material

  • Mainly Steel
  • Sits on 19000 tonnes of concrete foundation

Infinity Bridge

– Dual tied arch bridge / Bowstring bridge (pedestrian)

  • 240m long and 4m wide

– Built between 2007~2008 (£15m)

– Design

  • Won the RIBA competition
  • Pair of asymmetrical arches which are continuous
  • Designed for it to be a landmark
  • LED illumination during the night

– Material

  • Steel (weathering and stainless)
  • Reinforced concrete

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Antonio Cano on: October 27, 2015
Good job Seungwoo! You showed a lot interest and enthusiasm on all the tasks you carried out on the first day. Although on the description above I missed some information regarding the research you did yesterday on the area where the footbridge will be located. Specifically you showed me very useful info. you found regarding existing tunnels and other services under the possible options that I think would be worth mentioning here. But in general, I am very glad with your work so far! Well done.

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

 

Existing Bridges:

Golden Jubilee Bridges (Hungerford Bridge)

  • Fixed to each side of Hungerford Bridge
  • Cable-stayed
  • Pedestrian
  • Completed in 2002
  • 300m span length
  • Help up by 7 angled pylons and also steel collars attached to Hungerford Bridge
  • Engineers involved: WSP, Ramboll

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

  • Pedestrian/Cycle
  • Opened in 2001
  • 100m span
  • Pivots to allow boats to pass
  • Arch style bridge
  • Steel structure
  • Engineers involved: Gifford/Ramboll

Millennium Bridge

  • Pedestrian
  • 325m span length
  • Opened fully in 2002
  • Had resonance problems that meant the bridge was closed to add suitable damping
  • Made of steel
  • Suspension bridge
  • Engineers involved: Sir Robert McAlpine

Types of Bridges (and how they could fit into the project):

Suspension

  • Requires pylons (on riverbank maybe)
  • Pylons would obstruct view of the power station (to be avoided if possible)
  • A few suspension bridges across London stretch of Thames so would fit in
  • Would be able to span width at the site

Cable Stayed

  • Requires pylons (maybe only one and could be in river which would help with ramp access)
  • Could obstruct view
  • Large span so maybe more than one pylon required
  • One other cable stayed bridge on London Thames stretch (but with regeneration could fit in)

Girder

  • Needs piers in river (could block navigation)
  • No pylons so no obstruction
  • Not the most aesthetic
  • Could be similar to other bridges along the river

Cantilever

  • Would require piers in river due to limited space on riverbank
  • Normally used for larger spans/greater loads
  • Requires a lot of structure (bulky/possible obstruction)
  • Would fit with current bridges

Supervisor Comments

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

Existing bridges with a similar purpose:

Golden Jubilee Bridges (Hungerford Bridge)

  • Fixed to each side of Hungerford Bridge
  • Cable-stayed
  • Pedestrian
  • Completed in 2002
  • 300m span length
  • Large access ramp
  • Help up by 7 angled pylons and also steel collars attached to Hungerford Bridge
  • Engineers involved: WSP, Ramboll

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

  • Pedestrian/Cycle
  • Opened in 2001
  • 100m span
  • Very small access ramp, fits straight onto riverbank
  • Pivots to allow boats to pass
  • Arch style bridge
  • Steel structure
  • Engineers involved: Gifford/Ramboll

Millennium Bridge

  • Pedestrian
  • 325m span length
  • Opened fully in 2002
  • Had resonance problems that meant the bridge was closed to add suitable damping
  • Made of steel
  • Long access ramp
  • Suspension bridge
  • Engineers involved: Sir Robert McAlpine

Types of Bridges (and how they could fit into the project):

Suspension

  • Requires pylons (on riverbank maybe)
  • Pylons would obstruct view of the power station (to be avoided if possible)
  • A few suspension bridges across London stretch of Thames so would fit in
  • Would be able to span width at the site

Cable Stayed

  • Requires pylons (maybe only one and could be in river which would help with ramp access)
  • Could obstruct view
  • Large span so maybe more than one pylon required
  • One other cable stayed bridge on London Thames stretch (but with regeneration could fit in)

Girder

  • Needs piers in river (could block navigation)
  • No pylons so no obstruction
  • Not the most aesthetic
  • Could be similar to other bridges along the river

Cantilever

  • Would require piers in river due to limited space on riverbank
  • Normally used for larger spans/greater loads
  • Requires a lot of structure (bulky/possible obstruction)
  • Would fit with current bridges

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Karthikeyan Vivegananthan on: October 26, 2015
I believe that William has applied i) the knowledge he gained during his research into existing bridge structures and ii) the site constraints he identified during the desk study, to achieve the objectives in day one. It is interesting to note that William has considered the limitations of the different types of bridges such as the obstruction to river navigation due to additional piers in the river. I think William has been successful in focusing his research towards the relevant site specific requirements. For the existing bridges, I think that the type of materials used, cost of the bridge and how the bridge was built are additional information that can be useful. The span lengths referred is understood to be the total length of the bridge. In summary, I think that William has organised his time efficiently in order to achieve the objectives in day one.

Analysing The Options

2 of the "Analysing The Options" Student Studio Workbook

Battersea Map

A detailed map showing important features to be considered before choosing one of the proposed options.

 

 

Weighting (%) Option 1 Option2 Option 3
Avoids Waterways / Tunnels 200 3 1 2
Angle with the bank 190 3 2 1
Length 180 2 3 1
Space available on the bank 180 2 1 3
Distance from nearby residents 170 2 3 1
Avoids Piers 150 3 1 2
Distance from Pimlico Station 130 1 2 3
Distance from Victoria Station 115 3 2 1
View of the Power Station 110 2 3 1
Distance from key attractions 110 3 2 1
Nearby Santander Cycles 100 1 2 3
General Scenery 100 1 2 3
Total Score   3905 3400 3105
Percentage Score   75.0240154 65.32181 59.65418

A matrix showing why I have decided to choose Option 1.

– Summary –

  • Option 1
    • Second shortest bridge (although not much different from Option 2)
    • It only crosses an underground tunnel at one point where you do not require a pier
    • Pre-existing infrastructure could be used to build the bridge more easily and cheaper
      • More money can be invested to make the bridge unique
    • It does not cross a pier (less regulation to worry about)
    • Almost perpendicular to the river bank
    • Reasonable amount of space available on both banks
    • Although it is by a railway the design of the bridge can help to overcome the problem
    • Fairly close to the new and the old residents as well as key attractions
    • Reasonable distance from two of the main underground stations
    • Nice view of the power station

 

  • Option 2
    • Shortest bridge
    • Runs directly above a tunnel and it also goes over a pie
    • Consequently much more complicated planning required (could be even more expensive)
    • Hard for the actual construction to take place
    • Not an expensive choice
    • Almost perpendicular to the river bank
    • Not much space available on the North bank
    • Fairly close to the residents and the attractions
    • Clear view of the power station

 

  • Option 3
    • The longest bridge (more material / more expensive / longer time)
    • Crosses waterways at two separate points
    • The angle it forms with the bank makes the construction much more complicated, possibly even more expensive
    • Plenty of space available on both sides of the bank
    • Okay view of the power station
    • Much better view in terms of general scenery
    • It does not go over a pier
    • It is possible that diagonal piers may cause problems for traffic on the river
    • Much more expensive than the other two options

Therefore Option 1 is the best

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Antonio Cano on: October 28, 2015
Well done Seungwoo. It seems you have done a really good job on this part. As we discussed I think you have made a good decision choosing Option 1, and the way you have justified your choice looks pretty good to me. Now I am looking forward to seeing your design!
Comment by Seungwoo Lee on: October 27, 2015
Forgot to divide the total score by a hundred and it would be probably better to round them up.

Choosing a route

2 of the "Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Desk Study

Printed out all the resources as well as screen shots of the bike lanes and transport routes around the project site. This highlighted the need for the bridge as the only other crossings were far away and inconvenient.

Assessed convenience of the different tube stations nearby.

Pimilico:

Site 1: 16 min, Site 2: 14min, Site 3: 10 min

Victoria:

Site 1: 20 min, Site 2: 21 min, Site 3: 19 min

Sloan Sq.:

Site 1: 14 min, Site 2: 18 min, Site 3: 22 min

But Pimilico most likely to be used as people would stay on train longer instead of walk for a bit longer.

Obstacles/Issues:

Site1: Railway would be disrupted during construction, 1 tunnel to avoid, not a lot of space on the northern bank due to small pavement.

Site 2: 2/3 tunnels to avoid, working jetty would get in the way, pavement small on northern bank

Site 3: 2 tunnels to avoid, between 2 working pontoons, longest option

Urban environment:

Site 1: Could fit into bridge, could upset local landmark of bridge, wouldn’t be its own feature

Site 2: Could easily be a feature, Power Station in background, might disrupt views

Site 3: Linked less to power station, would be its own feature, less interference with any other landmarks

Pros vs Cons:

Site 1:

PROS CONS
Cheaper (less materials) Far from Pimlico tube
No disruption to the jetties Would disrupt rail services during construction
Short distance to cross Limited space on North Bank
Would not block power station Wouldn’t be its own feature
Close to Sloan Sq. Tube Could disrupt local landmark of rail bridge
  Construction issues on north bank

 

Site 2:

PROS CONS
Short distance to cross Would disrupt jetties
Central to 3 stations 2/3 pipes to avoid
Could complement power station Could disrupt view of power station
Could be its own feature/ new landmark Pavement small on north bank
  Construction issues on both banks

 

Site 3:

PROS CONS
Closest to best tube 2 tunnels to avoid
Would be its own feature Longest option
Construction would be easier Possible view block
Serves target users by being further east  

 

Overall decision is to choose site 3 for the following reasons:

  • Best transport links
  • No disruption to rail bridge
  • Minimal disruption to jetties
  • Could be made into an amazing feature without blocking views
  • Access on both banks is the easiest
  • Would complement the regeneration by beings a brand new feature
  • Construction would be the simplest of the three options
  • Closest to where people will be coming from and where they want to go to

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Karthikeyan Vivegananthan on: October 28, 2015
I think that William has successfully performed a comprehensive review of the alignment options and communicated the overall decision to the stakeholders effectively. During the stakeholder meeting, I observed that William was confident in his communication of the key construction issues and his reasons towards the preferred alignment option. His presentation was made effective using annotated sketches of the existing transport links that he had prepared ahead. I also note that William continues to maintain an orderly 'reflective diary' of the tasks undertaken. In summary, William has developed good insight towards the project specific construction issues and selected a preferred alignment in order to progress to the next stage.

Initial Concept

3 of the "Initial Concept" Student Studio Workbook

Made seven pages of sketches of all sorts of ideas and designs for the bridge. This included plan and elevation views of the different designs. There was a mixture of cable-stayed, suspension and beam bridges.

I then made more detailed sketches of 3 of the designs from the first lot. They became more detailed in terms of structure and size as well as development of the ramp access design. I realised that there was lots of space on both sides for a gentle gradient ramp and it did not have to be a spiral ramp or any other space saving design.

These three designs included one cable-stayed, one suspension and one Beam Bridge. I included an artist view or perspective sketch as well.

I then weighed up the pros and cons of each design in terms of feasibility for the required span length, a very rough construction sequence with regards to what actually needed to be built and also the designs look and how it fitted in with the area around it including its positioning with regards to the Power Station.

The design team meeting was the chance to show which design I though was the most suitable after thinking about their positives and drawbacks. I chose the cable stayed bridge because it was a compromise between the ability to achieve the span length required across the river and also the amount it blocked/disrupted the views of the surrounding area.

In the meeting we discussed how the cable stayed option that I chose could be altered and what implications these alterations would have on the bridge and the people using it. This included where the cables would be fitted, the positioning of the pedestrian and cycle areas and the size and configuration of the pylon.

After the meeting I completed two further sketches of my chosen design. These sketches were cross-section and elevation sketches.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Karthikeyan Vivegananthan on: October 28, 2015
In my opinion, William has made a very good transition from the research and feasibility - of the alternative alignments - into concept designs for engineering solutions. I think that William has gained an appreciation for the purpose and importance of sketching as a civil engineer. It may be useful to include early sketches into the presentation to showcase the creative transition from the first sketch to the final sketch. I observed that William is keen to learn about the 'how' and 'why' behind the construction sequence, cable arrangement (one central plane vs two planes along each edge) and the cost of similar bridges of a similar span obtained from a Footbridge 2011 conference paper. During the design team meeting, William showed a good appreciation for managing his time when he raised concerns for the additional constraints discussed in the meeting that were not part of the original scope of work. I believe that William made the correct decision to limit the constraints to the project brief and avoid the additional constraints that were raised during the meeting. In summary, I think William has developed an engineering solution and has a clear idea of the preferred design to proceed to the next stage.

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Today started with the drawing of the bridge to scale. This meant that we could use the rule of thumb to see whether the proportions were right and the bridge had an element of feasibility about it.

Then having sorted out the dimensions of the bridge I calculated the volume of materials and therefore the mass of all the material. This was important for working out the dead and live loads on the bridge and what weight the foundations would be taking.

Then I prepared a brief construction sequence of the bridge and the way the materials would be brought to site.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Karthikeyan Vivegananthan on: October 30, 2015
I believe that William was successful in the completion of the objectives for day four. William appreciated the need to optimise the preliminary design in order to reduce the size of the deck and hence the cost of the materials required. I noted that William performed further research into cable stay footbridges in order to understand whether his design was sensible in terms of the quantity of materials and the relative proportions of the pylon height: span of bridge deck. In summary, William was keen to learn how mathematics is applied in civil engineering design and the environmental aspects of the construction sequence.

Initial Designs

3 of the "Initial Designs" Student Studio Workbook

0561_001This is the default text!

 

List of initial designs

Supervisor Comments

Presentation

5 of the "Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

Did a detailed final drawing of the bridge from different views. This took a long time but it was worth it because it meant that I had a nice drawing of my bridge.

Prepared a presentation and delivered it to 6 other people which was challenging but I enjoyed it. It included all the different things that I covered this week and put them all together to convey my ideas about why my bridge was designed and positioned as it was.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Karthikeyan Vivegananthan on: October 30, 2015
I think that William was successful in the student studio project to design a footbridge. During the presentation, William successfully justified his decision for the chosen alignment option and communicated the key constraints for the site and the corresponding design solutions. The construction sequence for the bridge design was critically reviewed by the attendees at the presentation. It was pointed out that the pylon will require additional support during construction due to the instability from the pylon inclination and incremental segment construction. The final design received positive feedback during the presentation and was also called an 'elegant' design solution for the bridge. In summary, I believe that William has gained an understanding of type of work undertaken in the civil engineering industry and in particular the bridge engineers.

Day one- Make A Scape

1 of the "Day one- Make A Scape" Student Studio Workbook

The first thing we do today is to play on Make A Scape activities

Before the game…

the aim of these activities is to give people an idea of how structures are supported (how they “stand up”)

This seems to be an activity written for students at age 6-12 as it gives a rough idea of how structures are made, there are not many complicated information in the app. However, i think it would be useful for architects/ engineers to note down some of their initial/simple thoughts about building and structures they have to create.

the app is available on app store which means it can be carried in anywhere and at anytime. I think is very convenient and helpful as people may want to note down their ideas quickly before they forget. The downside about the app is that it can only be used on iPads which means people without iPads would not be able to use it.

The instructions are easy to understand but the videos tell me much more about how to play the activities than the tutorials on the app. The activities sound practical instead of fun, it does not seem to be a game but more like a resource to teach people about structures.

 

Ravine game

for this game, i was trying to join up the two ends by building a bridge without it falling apart in. The structure i made has lots of red and blue beams at the end which mean the beams are undertaking a great tension and compression and will break easily in rock falls and earthquakes. i believed my structure is undertaking too much weight as i added too many beams and therefore for my second attempt, i improved the structure by using 11 beams in total and making it a symmetrical shape.

IMG_6100

my first attempt which is too unstable 

IMG_6101IMG_6102

my second attempt which is much stabler, having to support much less weight.

area activity  

in this activity, i have to make the largest area with the least energy of materials used. i created a mostly regular 12-sided polygon, trying to make the largest area possible with only two supports at the bottom. I cut the shape into triangles and rectangles in order to find out the area (which is 91 units squared) and i calculated the energy of the material used, (1000-818)GJ =182 GJ. these allow me to find out the material used per area which is 182/91. The problem with the structure i made is that it is very unstable. it failed the strength test, have a lot of breakages after earthquakes and rock fall. This structure is definitely not suitable in real life.

i think this activity can be a fun way to practice how to calculate the areas of different shapes which is a really important mathematical skill. However, the squares shown on the ipads are too small and i struggled to find the area of the shape at first and i have to draw out the shape on graph paper to make it clearer.

to make the activity more interesting for people to play, i think it should include different stages, people have to reach a specific area under certain material they can use in all these different stages.

IMG_6096

the bottom of the structure is undertaking too much weight IMG_6097IMG_6098

Reflection

i understand more about how structures are supported through making my own structures in Make a Scape. Through them i found out that a structure can not have any breakages and it has to have a strong support at the bottom. The taller the structure, the more unstable it is as it is working against the fore of gravity. Make a scape is a really interesting way for me to understand how to make structure stable and safe, as the red and blue lines indicate the unstable parts of the structure which show me where about the structure i can make improvements on. However, i would like to understand more about how the forces are acting on the structures.

i also learnt a lot from the “Tuesday Lunch” where we introduced the Make A Scape activities with Lain to his other colleagues. It gives me a brief idea on how meetings are carried out. I was in charge of showing them the area activity which is the activity that i have concentrated on in the morning with Freya. Through this,  i understand how to present ideas to other people and learning from their feedback. Tomorrow i would like to use Make a Scape to build an existing structure, seeing where are the crucial supports for the structure and figure out if there are any better ways to build the structure.

some possible questions for the interview on Friday

  1. what are your favorite subjects when you were studying in school
  2. what is the best thing of being an engineer/architect/graphic designer
  3. what are the qualities for becoming an engineer/architect/graphic designer
  4. what university did you go to
  5. what do you think is the suitable thing for me to do at this stage
  6. what do you normally do as an engineer/architect/graphic designer

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 16, 2016
Hi Yennie, Great work so far, it is very interesting to read what you thought of these activities and our app Make A Scape. I think the idea of finding a specific area is inspired! I look forward to you developing that idea in your own activities later on in the week. You mention about finding out about the forces acting on the structure. Tomorrow try the forces button on Make A Scape, and see what it does. In future try to upload screen shots instead of pictures (I know you have already discussed this with me). Great work today. Iain

Day 1-Freya

1 of the "Day 1-Freya" Student Studio Workbook

Before you play

Aim of activity: to give people the idea of how structures and shapes work

Who is it written for: for secondary school students (year 7,8,9)

environment: could possibly be used in schools, in a leisured environment

Instructions: the videos were very good at telling you how to use it and what activities to use.

Information:

Activities: some of the activities sounded fun e.g. the bridge one, but the area of the triangle sounded like a normal school activity

After you play

I found the sand box mode fun where you could build your own things and then test them against rock falls and earthquakes. I enjoyed creating our own shapes and then finding the area. The game mode itself was fun to play around with however once completed there isn’t much more to it. The tutorial is not very clear and doesn’t explain well how to use it however it is an easy app to use anyway so less instructions would be preferred.

The tasks could be improved by using some of the conditions e.g. rockfall incorporated in them which would make it more competitive and fun.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Day 1 Log

1 of the "Day 1 Log" Student Studio Workbook

Widest Bridge:

Aim: Understanding that stress increases over longer distances due to weight.

For: Teachers – Langauge directed towards a person taking a group of people

Access only really for people with iPads, since iPhone is too small. (Has computer accessibility been discussed, since most schools don’t have iPads of their own.

Instructions are fine, in fact better than the tutorial. Sounds reasonably fun.

 

After:

Was fun, as getting to know the dynamics of the game/tool was interesting. Constant application of weight/effect of gravity is crucial. In the real world, you can’t build first and then just add the gravity, as with other similar models I have seen before.

I would say that having done it, the video gives too much away; the design used by Iain is actually very good for a bridge of reasonable length, so students probably shouldn’t watch it if the teacher wants it to be a challenge.

Improvement: This may just be a stimulus, in which case the teacher can provide their own ideas. However, I might recommend creating a bridge as long as possible whilst also testing against wind and other such included tests (probably not the Ice blocks – too brutal/unrealistic in my opinion)

The longest bridge I managed to build
The longest bridge I managed to built

 

Area Activity:

The initial idea doesn’t sound as fun. This one is very much aimed at teachers (language used).

The location where it could be used is the same as the previous exercise.

The instructions could be clearer; does the triangle have to be made of single ‘bars/lines’ or could it be made upside down in order to hang.

Also (especially with young people), a real life situation that it can be compared to is useful to encourage kids. i.e: “build a stadium with the largest cross-sectional area”. Children like to be pedantic with teachers, so don’t let them ask the “but sir/miss when would I ever use this” question.

 

The largest enclosed area I managed
The largest enclosed area I managed

 

It takes two to cantilever activity:

 

The most promising activity; good to start a lesson with – can then go on to talk about the actual physics/maths behind it. Also only requires one iPad between 2.

I haven’t done it myself, but I assume it would be fun. I might also set a height limit for the 2 starting supports; building up is harder. Could even make the line that needs to be crossed a certain height as an extension, instead of starting further away.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 17, 2016
Good work Patrick. In Wednesdays workbook can you include the questions you plan for the interviews. Try and think of some specific ones for each job role. Iain
Comment by Patrick Davies on: February 17, 2016
I'd say the thing(s) that surprised me most about the office was the generally relaxed atmosphere and the lack of suits being worn.
Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 16, 2016
Hi Patrick, Very astute points raised, especially about the real time gravity, this is something that is specific to Make A Scape that we want to use to its fullest. Your extension to 'it takes two to cantilever' is something I would never have thought of and this could make the base of another activity. I think you have really taken to this project and I am excited to see what you come up with over the next few days. Some areas of improvement. Can you include a diary entry as this will help you take note of anything you have learnt during your experience, for example today you saw a feedback group in a business setting. Can you also include the questions you plan to ask the Architect, Structural Engineer and the Graphic Designer. These can be general questions, but with at least one specific question for each occupation. Great Work Iain

Day 1- Freya

1 of the "Day 1- Freya" Student Studio Workbook

Before playing

Aim: to help secondary school students to learn about shapes and structures

Target audience: for secondary school students(Yr 7, 8, 9 mainly but could be used for GCSE purposes)

Environment: school, homework

Instuctions: I think that the instructions where quite clear  the videos really helped and explained the task and how to use the app well. The images from the bridge one dictated what you had to do rather than letting you be creative. the instructions for “it takes two to cantilever” could be clearer as I was unsure how it works to begin with.

Most of the activities sounded fun mainly the bridge exercise. The triangular area one didn’t sound as fun as the others as it sounded like a normal area finding exercise. I think it would be more fun to incorporate the conditions: rockslide,  earthquake etc in the tasks

After playing

I found it fun to play and doing activities like the finding the area of the shape where we made a 12 sided polygon mainly out off small triangles to get the widest shape possible and found out it’s area was 91 units^2 by using square paper and splitting it up into triangles and rectangles.

 

IMG_0320[1]

IMG_0322[1]

Also on the bridge exercise I first made a simple bridge but then I made an arch which was 18 units long but it broke under the rockslide and it wasn’t particularly stable with only 2 supports as I originally built it with 4

IMG_0323[1]simple without supports taken away

IMG_0329[1]

arch

I also tried the normal game mode for the ravine and managed to complete it which was fun as it took me a few tries to get right to withstand the earthquake. the actual solution was a lot simpler than I first thought

IMG_0324[1]

this one didn’t work

IMG_0330[1]

this one did

I would have liked less instructions and to be allowed to just explore the different things that can be done on it as I think it would make it more fun however as it is for educational purposes it’s good.

I think the task could be improved by using more pictures of example structures for the “It takes two to cantilever” and more variety of images for “bridges” but overall the instructions were easy to follow. I would also prefer if there were more competitive tasks between 2 people and if the conditions rockfall, earthquake and windload were involved.

Questions for interview

1.what were your best subjects in school and were they useful to you?

2.what do you find the most challenging in your day to day work?

3.what do you do on your typical day?

4.Do you work mainly in a team?

5.If you went to university, what did you study?

Reflective diary

Today I looked at and went through the tasks of make a scape and had a go at the app and evaluated to tasks. I also went and helped with a”Tuesday lunch” meeting about the app where we helped show the different tasks with Ian to his colleagues to receive user feedback. This was good as I learnt what it was like to gain user feedback in a work environment. It also helped me learn about how different structures work under pressure and to give me a greater understanding about how forces act on different shapes. I enjoyed it and it was fun playing and being creative with the app. Tomorrow I would like to continue learning about the different structures but on a more complicated level. I mainly worked with Yennie on working out the area and creating structures on the app. If I could do anything differently I would have made more notes throughout the day in my note book

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 16, 2016
Hi Freya, I am very impressed with how you have approached and executed this task, there is some very valuable feedback and the pictures were very helpful. Showing one structure that worked, and one that didn't for the ravine level is something that we can upload to our website. I think you are absolutely correct that the rock-slide and earthquake functions are under utilised and this is something that I look forward to see in the activities you design later on in the week. One area of development, and this was not specific in the instructions, is that during the week you will interview an Architect, Structural Engineer and a Graphic Designer, could you create a tailored question for each of them. Great Work today. Iain

Day 2-Freya

2 of the "Day 2-Freya" Student Studio Workbook

Field Visit to the fab lab

the fab lab is a creative space which provides workspace and equipment for individuals and companies and it can host events and workshops.

The questions I would ask would be what equipment they can provide that would be useful for the make a scape app e.g. ipads. I would ask about the different areas of the fab lab that we can use for the event. I would look at what different areas of the fab lab could be used for e.g. food having a go at the app. I would also look at the different equipment that would be useful for the event.

Structural engineering research

I researched bridges in Google images and found a few I liked:

Sydney_harbour_bridge_new_south_wales

harbour bridge in Sydney

IMG_0334[1]

The bridge did stay up however to get it to I had to use 6 supports to build it. the problem was that when I removed 4 of the supports it fell over.

IMG_0336[1]

The differences to real life was that there weren’t suspension ropes available to hold up the road so I had to make the road part with separate pieces. It was also hard to get it symmetrical so one side had more strain than the others. The similarities for real life is that the arch does hold up the road piece using the pieces acting as ropes. The arch is also made out of triangles like the real thing.

eiffel-tower

The Eiffel tower, Paris

IMG_0338[1]

The make a scape model did stay up using 4 supports and was very sturdy mainly because of the first arch. The difference to real life one was mainly the limit to the amount of detailed structure as you could only go so high on the play ground screen. The similarities to real life was that the shape was quite accurate with the first arch and the gap in the middle. The shape also seamed very centred and sturdy. The difficulties I ran into were trying to get the hole in the middle the correct shape.

Python Bridge, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Python Bridge, Amsterdam, Netherlands

IMG_0339[1]

The bridge only just stood up and used 6 supports and was weak at ether end. The similarities to real life were that it has a support in the middle where the bridge dips down. The differences are that it was hard to get it to curve like the actual bridge did using only triangles and straight lines which meant that the model on make a scape doesn’t look much like the bridge. The difficulties I faced were in the centre the bridge gets thicker and bends down which was hard to do as I only had a limited amount of detail.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
London eye

IMG_0675IMG_0676

The structure did not stand up without the additional supports on the wheel probably as the whole wheel was attached to one point. The differences to real life are that the main part has crossed bracings unlike the real thing. There are also bracings around the circle which I couldn’t have added as otherwise it would have been to heavy for it to hold up. The similarities to real life are that the wheel is attached to one pivot and that it is actually circle shaped.

IMG_0674

The difficulties was to get the wheel to attach to only one point so I first drew a line vertically upwards which swung down and then I kept adding triangles. This ended up making the structure unstable so I had to add supports to the wheel.

Resource research

Maths-Angles

  • apply the properties of angles at a point, angles at a point on a straight line, vertically opposite angles
  • understand and use the relationship between parallel lines and alternate and corresponding angles

 

I looked through TES website resources in mathematics and found various angle related tasks, by favourite being death star angles with parallel lines which uses a fun theme to engage the student however I do not think it is compatible to make a scape as you can’t measure angles on it.

Physics-moments

  •  moment as the turning effect of a force

I also researched Turning moments and found that most of the activities used simple diagrams showing how big the forces were using arrows e.g. I think this would be compatable with make escape using the pull and forces function and maybe even the rock function as the app is able to show where the different forces act. The only problem is the balancing.

Daily Diary

Today I visited the Fab lab to find out what it is and what type of questions to ask when setting up an event and the different contact a company might have. Next I researched different building and bridge architecture to see what caught my interest and tried to make them in Make a scape.  I have developed how to create more complicated structures in make a scape. I have also researched a few topics on tes to give me ideas on what to make a task on. Tomorrow I hope to achieve deciding on a task and developing it further.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 18, 2016
Hi Freya, Great work today, I hope you enjoyed the FabLab. I think your questions have hit the nail on the head. The fact they don't have iPads has meant we have had to alter our plans for the event. When discussing the differences to real life you faced when building in Make A Scape I found your point about suspension ropes to be very astute. It is something that Make A Scape doesn't model well. Your Make A Scape models are very interesting, and ambitious. Some things I really liked about them were, the Eiffel Tower only had supports on the bottom of the building, as it is in real life. This was also true of the Python Bridge. The London eye was amazing to look at, I didn't know anything like that was possible on Make A Scape. Would putting a support at the centre help when building the wheel? It was very helpful for me that you added links to the TES activities. I am not sure that we can use moments on Make A Scape because of the way the beams attached, but these are sort of topics we should be looking at. Great work Freya, I look forward to seeing the activities you come up with on Thursday and Friday. Iain

Day two- Fab Lab & Research

2 of the "Day two- Fab Lab & Research" Student Studio Workbook

The Fab Lab

we started the day off with a field trip to the Fab Lab: London’s first purpose built digital fabrication and rapid prototyping work space. the main reason for us to go there is because of the Make A Scape Hackathon that is going to be held at the FabLab. the purpose of the Hakathon is to have the people to think of ways to use Make A Scape creatively in university environment. We had a short tour round Fab Lab and we looked at the space where the Hackathon is going to take place. I particularly looked at the atmosphere of the Fab Lab and found out everyone there are really engaged with their creative work. After the trip to Fab Lab, we have a short tour, seeing some interesting architectures around the area. i was stunned by the famous building Lloyd’s of London designed by the architect, Richard Rogers. I have heard about the building even before i came to England but i never know the reason for it until today. The special thing about this building is that it exposes its pipes, staircases, glass lifts etc.for the rest of the City of London and passers-by to see. these things are normally sheltered by the body of a building. Richard Rogers believe that a city should be transparent, which i completely agree with. I really like how this architecture shows people how a structure is made, what it is made out and more importantly, this way of building the architecture can create a lot of internal spaces.

lloyd's of london

Research

after some research online, i found myself particularly interested in two structures:

1.The first one is a pedestrian bridge in Changsha, China, designed by Dutch design studio. This bridge is 150 meters , designed to span the Dragon King Harbour River. i am interested in this structure as it is made of curve lines, and the idea of having the curve lines “standing up” as a bridge is just amazing, it matches really well with the river at the back, as the bridge looks like a flowing ribbon. I want to see whether this could be build in Make A Scape, and i want to figure out where are the supporting forces on this structure.                 changsha                             a picture of the bridge, Changsha

I used 408 GJ of materials for building the bridge which i think is a bit too much and may cost too much for a pedestrian bridge. This may be caused by the use of too many supports. Although it turns out that the bridge can pass the strength test, the huge amount of materials used make it impossible to build the structure in the way i did on Make A Scape.

IMG_6117

my bridge on Make A Scape 

FullSizeRender

my sketch of the bridge

2. the second architecture that i looked at is the Peak Tower in Hong Kong. It was the first Terry Farrell & Partners project in China. It is a seven-storey tower, and is a famous tourist attraction in Hong Kong. Due to the fact that it is located near the summit of Victoria Peak(the tallest mountain in Hong Kong), it has the view of the skyline and the Harbour. I has always been fascinated by the distinctive bowl shape of the building, it echoes the curving eaves typical of traditional Chinese architecture. the building is visually pleasing for me as it contradicts to many other buildings in Hong Kong: straight, tall-skyscrapers. At the same time it is very practical, having hotels, escalators, lifts, restaurants, viewing platforms etc. in the bowl shape part of the architecture and a tram is provided for tourist to go up. i want to make this building on Make a Scape because the bowl shape part looks quite heavy, the way it acts against force of gravity make me want to see whether this works in Make A Scape as well.Victoria-Peak-Tower-54935                                       a picture of the Peak Tower, Hong Kong

I used 334 GJ of material and 14 supports to make the Peak Tower. Learning from yesterdays’s experience, i tried to make the tower with simpler shapes, less beams as well as making it symmetrical. However, the tower still did not pass the strength test. i think i will have to add more supports in order to increase its stability next time.IMG_6116

my Peak Tower on Make A Scape

about tomorrow..

get ideas from educational games: to create activities for Make A Scape, i would look at things they used and and what they do to attract people to play the games

FullSizeRender (1)

my sketch of the Peak Tower

Tomorrow

  • look at educational games: ideas for creating activities for Make A Scape. what they do / use to attract people to play their games.
  • interview with an architect/graphic designer/engineer. i would i them the questions i have prepared and maybe some more specific questions e.g. the 1st project that they have done

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 17, 2016
Hi Yennie, I have not seen either of these structures before, they are fascinating. Excellent use of Make A Scape to model them. Since most real structures only have supports at the bottom, it would be very interesting for you try and make them on Make A Scape with supports on the bottom. Perhaps to do this you would have to simplify them but it would be interesting if you could get a similar feel to that of the structure. Your sketches are also fantastic, I look forward to seeing that in use for the activity you design tomorrow. I feel that sometimes bullet points can help emphasise your main points. Great work

Day 2 Log

2 of the "Day 2 Log" Student Studio Workbook

When researching and designing a few structures in Make a Scape, I chose the Severn Bridge, Big Ben (the tower) and London Bridge. Happily I managed to make them all stand up. However in the case of Big Ben it did mean adding an extra part that wasn’t accurate to the real thing.

 

Differences:

  • In a suspension bridge, the cables are very different from the girders and other aspects of the bridge. This made it a little tricky to emulate, as the weight of the cables had to be taken into account. I would say a recurring difference in all of my models is the lack of different materials.
  • The material in the app seems to be extremely dense, so weight quickly becomes a major key to whether or not the building/structure will stand.
  • My main difficulty was lining the points up so that the suspension cables would be vertical

My work for this is unable to be put in this section, but the word document is in the agreed section, and the screenshots have suitable names. I hope that’s alright.

Diary:

The visit to the FabLab was cool. It’s the first time I’ve seen a 3D printer first hand. The TES resource is also great, and I hope that I will be able to use it both for my presentation and also for help with my EPQ, as there are some really valuable resources.

 

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 18, 2016
Hi Patrick, Great work today, I feel that you added a lot to the last meeting on Wednesday, when we discussed possible research areas and questions for the up coming interviews. Your notes of the difficulties building on Make A Scape make interesting reading, I think your point about the different materials is very true. I think your questions are ready for the interviews and I'd like to highlight the 'inspiration question' to the Graphic designer as a particularly good question. Also, good to see your diary entry, that was the first time I had seen a 3D printer too. In real life the supports tend to be at the bottom of the structure. Do you think you could improve the reality of your Severn bridge by only having supports at the bottom? In order to achieve this you may have to simplify the design in order to just recreate the spirit of the structure. This is however just a thought, I am not sure if it is possible. I look forward to seeing the activities you design today. Iain

Day 3- Freya

3 of the "Day 3- Freya" Student Studio Workbook

Aim: create a windmill that will spin when rock fall is active

Description: This is for KS3 physics students in the classroom or for home learning to help them understand: turning moments and air resistance and weight in relation to surface area and possibly speed calculations.

Curriculum links: This links to Physics KS3 GCSE:

  •  moment as the turning effect of a force
  • forces being needed to cause objects to stop or start moving, or to change their speed or direction of motion (qualitative only)
  • change depending on direction of force and its size.
  • speed calculations

Instructions-for the teacher

give all the students an Ipad or one between 2 and give them the instructions of how to start off makeing a circle:

IMG_0342[1]

First place a support in the centre of the screen

IMG_0343

draw a line straight down which will be the length of your chosen radius. use the grid to work out how long the radius is and write it down.

IMG_0346

Then turn it into a triangle and try to make the radius the same as the first line

IMG_0348[1]

continue doing this until you have a complete circle. It is very hard to get it to be a perfect circle but you can test if it spins by using the ‘pull tool’.

Then the students can be completely creative with how they want to make it spin by adding different things to it. e.g.

IMG_0350[1]

adding extra parts to it to catch some of the rocks

you can also create a funnel to direct the rocks to a certain place

IMG_0366[1]

give the students some time to complete this task as it is quite hard to get the windmill to spin and to not break against the rockfall. This is the main aim and creative part of the challenge

If the students have a windmill that spins they can work out its speed using a stop watch measuring the time from when it starts to move to when it completely stops with the rock fall taking place and counting how many times it rotates before it falls apart(if it does). speed(RPM)= number of rotations/time(minutes). record the data 3 times and calculate an average, excluding any anomalies.

They can also work out the energy used to make the windmill by using the number in the top right hand corner which will say 1000GJ at the start and will go down the more beams you add. energy used=1000-number after you have built the windmill

You can also give prizes to students who have used the biggest working radius, fastest windmill, most creative looking, and least energy to make.

solution

IMG_0366[1]

I created the funnel using supports at every join to make sure it was strong. the actual windmill  has lines that cross over each other so they last the impact from the rocks.

Energy used to create it: 1000-565=435GJ

Rotations 3 for 40 seconds= 4.5 RPM

User feedback

I made a few changes to the instructions above as the task of building a working windmill is hard and should be the main aim. however the side aims seemed to work well once they were able to get a working windmill but overall the instructions were clear.

Most of the feedback said that the activity was fun and challenging. They also thought it was an interesting idea.

The improvements I made to it were that I had to specify for the student to write down the radius of their shape and make it clear that the main aim was getting the windmill to spin. I also added the suggested ideas on how to make the windmill turn as most of the users found it hard and needed more hints.

Daily diary

The time planning went well as I was able to use the research from yesterday to easily pick an activity to create today. The part that took longer than expected were explaining the instructions and to decide how much help to give the students without telling them how to make it work. I think the development of this idea went well as there are many pieces of the curriculum it can connect to and lots of different tasks it can relate to. I learned how to develop ideas and how to receive user feedback.

 

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 19, 2016
Hi Freya, This activity is visually spectacular I noticed you had members of the trust stopping in their tracks to look and ask you about it. You had a clear aim, and appropriate curriculum links. I think the way you describe how to make the wheel especially is very clear and well thought out. You gave a screenshot of the solution and even a RPM speed! You have taken this activity in a direction no one could have imagined. Great work. You have included the user feedback which as you know is something we really like to push at Think Up. Can you think of a name for you activity? Did you get much out of the interviews? Anything that you hadn't considered or new information? Well done Freya. Iain

Day three- designing my own activity

3 of the "Day three- designing my own activity" Student Studio Workbook

Creating my activity

Base on the work I did about the Hong Kong Peak Tower yesterday, I created this activity called the “platform” activity where you try to build the widest and tallest platform you can without it failing the strength test.

The “platform” activity

the aim of this activity is to give KS3/4 students a brief idea of where the center of gravity of an object is and the factors that affect the stability of the object. it is just a relaxing game so can be carried anywhere and anytime.

The stability of an object is affected by two factors:

  • the width of the base of the object
  • the height of its centre of mass

Instructions:

For this game, you have to make the widest and tallest platform possible with only two supports at the bottom, being at least 4 units apart.

1.You start the activity off by putting two supports down and they are being at least 4 units apart.

IMG_0357

2. You then try and build the structure upwards and outwards, as your aim is to make the structure the widest and tallest possible. after you have made your own structure, test it in the strength test and see whether it is stable enough to be in the reality. write down how tall, how far your platform gets to and how long does it survive in the strength test!

IMG_0358IMG_0355

  • The structure with only two units apart (structure a) and the structure with 4 units apart (structure b) have the same height, but structure b is more stable than structure a as it has a wider base. Structure b and structure c has the same width, but because structure b has a wider bas than structure c, it has an better support as therefore is more stable than structure c.

a.

IMG_0354

b. 

IMG_0359

c.

IMG_0360

d.

IMG_0361

e.                                                                                           grouped

  • Structure is shown to be much more stable than structure e, as the height of structure d’s centre of mass much smaller than that of structure e’s. it can be a sample solution of the game but  i believe there can be a solution with a greater height and width. (which is what the activity is aiming for)

After this activity, students may be able to find out that objects with a wide base, and a low centre of mass, are more stable than those with a narrow based and a high centre of mass.

Feedback 

  • “fun but a bit too challenging, hard to create a structure that has a wide top and is able to stay up in the strength test.”
  • solution:

players can note down the length of time that their structures survive in e.g. the rockfall. this allows more than one players to play the game: the player with a structure that can survive longer in the strength test and having a wider & taller platform than the other players wins the game. In this way the activity is not “impossible” to play due to the fact that most of the structures with wide and tall platforms fall down easily in a strength test.

Interviews

1.structural engineer

  • learning through working. takes about 10 years to become a chartered engineer
  • work in a team with other engineers, architects, and cost consultants
  • studied in Sheffield for a four years architecture and structural engineering course

2. graphic designer

  • did art gcse, a-level and finally art foundation
  • lots of sketching, finalize ideas in illustrator/computer programmes
  • deadlines for thing are about two weeks
  • as i have worked with jewellery designers before, i think the type of work they do are similar, is just what they are designing are different.

3. architect

  • 3 stages to become a qualified architect: 3 years of undergraduate course, at least 2 years in industry and another 3 years of studying
  • he has his first stage in Cambridge, then in RIBA and lastly UCL
  • studied physics, art, and maths for A-level

Main things i have learnt today:

  • learnt more about how to create activities that can become a good teaching resource for students/teachers(which i have to think in their perspectives, creating something that is suitable for them)
  • the path of becoming an engineer/architect/graphic designer

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 19, 2016
Hi Yennie, I think this activity is can really help students learn about building. It can get students to think about the difficulties in trying to build in a certain shape. You have used screenshots very effectively in you instructions. I think using the length of time that a structure can survive is very clever, and a method of comparison which can be used for many activities. Can you give your activity a name? I think to make this activity simpler you could lead students through it more. Maybe specify the height, then ask them to make the widest platform? Then after as an extension you can add in the variable of height as well. Excellent notes on the interview, and good use of bullet points. Great work Yennie. Iain

Day 3 Log

3 of the "Day 3 Log" Student Studio Workbook

Designing an activity for Make a Scape

Aim: Similar to the 2-player cantilever game, both players start as close to either side of the screen as possible. However, the aim with this activity is to make your structure pass where your opponent started. As long as your structure doesn’t touch the ground, anything goes. It’s harder than it sounds. You can play it aggressively and go straight for it, or be more defensive and try to block your opponent.  Just remember, there is no clipping with the material; you can build through each other. However, you can’t use each other’s nodes to build from.

Audience: Teachers and students at KS3/4, in a classroom environment. However, (I hope) it’s fun enough to be played by anyone, both at school or at home. These instructions are aimed more at the teacher.

Instructions:

  1. Players pick sides. Make sure the screen is fully zoomed out. Then, using the grid, pick 2 points that are 4 units away from each other vertically, and 7 units from the wall (or 7 units from where the toolbar ends on the left). If you need to move the screen to the left or the right in order to make some sort of cantilever, just use 2 fingers and drag.
  2. Then let the challenge begin! Players take it in turns to make a move; this constitutes building a maximum of 2 lines. This could be in order to build a triangle off an existing line or in another more creative way if you can think of one. Moving one of the existing nodes also counts as a turn. This might be necessary in order to balance the structure.
  3. Remember to consider that as the structure is built further from the starting point, the compression of the pieces on the bottom and the tension of the pieces on the top of your structure will increase. You can monitor this by checking a line’s colour. If it’s almost solid red or blue (nearly opaque) then maybe try to take some of the weight off it, or build some cross braces.

Pat

Hopefully this diagram shows how you might go about crossing your opponents starting point, marked as the blue line in the diagram. You can also see that a cantilever has been used in order to allow further extension to the left. However, you can see that the tension on the top ‘bar’ is very high; likewise with the three bottom pieces, in the bold blue.

 

As a simple extension, the starting points can be moved further away from each other, as even adding a little bit of distance can change the thinking required dramatically.

For something more complex, ask both students to start from either the very top or very bottom of the fully zoomed out screen. This will mean reading the opponents choices will be very important; learning from their mistakes could win the game! Building from the very bottom of the screen will also pose a major challenge, as making sure that the structure doesn’t touch the ground will be much tougher.

 

 

Reflective Diary:

The interviews today were great, particularly with the architect. I hadn’t considered it before, but it might be something to at least look into for future work. I had no idea about the formalities behind actually calling yourself an Architect!

Talking with the graphic designer made me realise quite how much your level of creativity and personal imagination relies on both the company you work for and the project you are currently undertaking.

I like how my activity has turned out; I realised the first time I saw people playing a game against each other in the Useful Tuesday presentation that it is generally more fun, and I wanted to emulate the idea of having different options as to how to go about making your structure.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 19, 2016
Hi Patrick. Excellent work creating this activity. I like how the game you have created builds on to the previous two player game, yet it is distinct. You give good in-game advice for example what you might do if you have a solid blue or red beam. You explain what constitutes a go 'building a maximum of two lines'. I think that your game is more combative than mine, and the players need to react to the other player which makes it much more intense.Lastly two extensions is excellent, that way prepares for a range of abilities. Some next steps for the activity, can you think of a name for the activity? In it you are trying to get to your opponents starting line makes me think of a few sports perhaps it could be a word-play on a sport? In your screenshot there is only one player, I think this is good for showing roughly how it could be done, but I think it is good to include a shot of actual game-play. Can players delete on their go? If so would that count as a move? Great job during the interviews it made it a lot easier as you were engaged and ready with questions. I am very happy to hear about how the testing has altered your design. Iain
Comment by Patrick Davies on: February 18, 2016
The feedback given from the others in the group was also helpful, as it helped me realise a problem with the distance between starting points.

Day 4- presentation and summary

4 of the "Day 4- presentation and summary" Student Studio Workbook

My Presentation

feedback:

clear instructions for teachers wanting to use the activity to teach centre of mass and factors affecting an objects’s stability

what i can improve:

i should speak more confidently, and maybe practice more before my presentation, so i can look at the script less often.

 

Final thoughts

My highlight of the experience is when we are doing research about various interesting buildings/ structures around the world. It was great fun as I saw so many exciting structure that i thought would be impossible to exist. I have also done some sketches on the architectures/structures that i am really interested in. Although I concentrated a lot on Hong Kong Peak Tower (which i am most familiar with) by the end of the research, all the other structures that i have seen online e.g. the Crescent Moon Tower in Dubai, showed me a lot more about the architectures across the world. the trip to see the famous building Lloyd’s of London designed by the architect, Richard Rogers was also particularly memorable for me. I learnt about the special things about the building and understand Rogers’s intention behind his way of building the structure.

i have improved a lot in terms of working efficiency. I had always been working really slowly before, but after the work experience this time, i think i understand more about how to work faster and have a better control of time. as we have to type in our daily dairy everyday, my typing speed has also been improved. due to the fact that this work experience is about teaching resources, architecture and engineer, i become more knowledgeable in these fields than before. This is achieved through different tasks and activities that i have been set during the time as well as the interviews with professional engineer, architect, graphic designer that my supervisor has organised for us. I understand how to design an activity for an app which can help with educational purposes. I has to stand at the teachers’ and the students’ perspectives to do that as i have to know how to encourage them to play on the activities that we design. the most important thing that i have learnt is presentation and communication skills. During the whole of the work experience, i always have to express my ideas to my group and having discussions with them. The presentation today also prepared me for what i will always have to do later in my life. I believe all these skills that i have improved will help me to success more in my school life now as well as in my career later on.

i have really enjoyed the four days work experience here, i have had much fun and learnt a lot.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 23, 2016
Hi Yennie, It has been fantastic having you here for the week, I am glad you had a good time. It is really nice to hear about the skills you have developed. I think you came across very well in your presentation. Your slides were well presented and you were clear about what you wanted to say. Most importantly you stood up to questioning well, this shows people that you understand your subject. You are welcome to contact us in the future about organising more work experience, or perhaps in a few years work. Sincerely Iain Robertson

Day 4-Freya

4 of the "Day 4-Freya" Student Studio Workbook

Powerpoint

powerpoint

I think the power point presentation went okay, I still need practice with public speaking but this has definitely increased my confidence and focus on not rushing it.

Final Diary

the highlight of my experience was developing my activity for make a scape as I enjoyed coming up with ideas and developing them and trying to get it to work.

The task of getting user feedback was to give each other our activities and to try them out and then to write improvements on the sheet. this process could have been improved if we asked each other to take screen shots as then we could use them as examples in the development write up.

The skills I have developed are learning how to develop ideas from user feedback, how to research different learning resources, planning my time carefully and creating solutions to some problems I faced. I have also become more confident in my presenting skills from giving my final presentation which I really struggled with before. I also was able to answer questions on the spot

This week has helped me narrow my career path down as I now have a greater understanding of what a structural engineer and an architect does and how the different jobs link together and how much creativity each person has  and the university degrees they did. I also enjoyed being in a work environment in an office and having to plan my time by myself.

I have really enjoyed this work experience placement and I think I have learnt a lot of skills.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 23, 2016
Hi Freya, It has been a real pleasure having you here, it is really great to hear that you have enjoyed the experience and feel that you have got a lot out of it. Your presentation was excellent, you came across as very prepared, knowledgeable on your subject and confident, well done! If you are looking for work experience, or work in a few years time, please don't hesitating in contacting us. Sincerely Iain Robertson

First past the Post

4 of the "First past the Post" Student Studio Workbook

Make A Scape activity: First Past The Post

 

Instructions:

  1. Players pick sides. Make sure the screen is fully zoomed out. Then, using the grid, pick 2 points that are 4 units away from each other vertically, and 7 units from the wall. If you need to move the screen to the left or the right in order to make some sort of cantilever, just use 2 fingers and drag.
  2. Then, let the challenge begin! Take it in turns to make a move; this constitutes creating a maximum of 2 lines. This could be in order to build a triangle off an existing line or in another more creative way if you can think of one. Moving one of your existing nodes also counts as a turn. This might be necessary in order to balance your structure. You can also destroy up to 2 lines per turn.
  3. Remember to consider that as you build further from your starting point, the compression of the pieces on the bottom and the extension of the pieces on the top of your structure will increase. You can monitor this by checking a line’s colour. If it’s almost solid red or blue (nearly opaque) then maybe try to take some of the weight off it, as it’s about to break!

 

Pat

 

As a simple extension, the starting points can be moved further away from each other, as even adding a little bit of distance can change the thinking required dramatically.

For something more complex, ask both students to start from either the very top or very bottom of the fully zoomed out screen. This will mean reading the opponents choices will be very important; learning from their mistakes could win the game! Building from the very bottom of the screen will also pose a major challenge, as making sure that the structure doesn’t touch the ground will be much tougher.

 

Reflective Diary:

Highlight of the week – asking people really specific questions in the interviews; I am definitely going to be doing some more research into architecture degrees.

I think that out visit to the FabLab was interesting, although I hadn’t realised that it was only a recce for a later event rather than a ‘proper’ visit; this was possibly down to the tack being unclear on the Student Studio. I also found it really interesting looking around the buildings in the Bank area, especially since we had a structural engineer with us!

 

I feel like I have definitely improved on the aspects of the placement that I was finding difficult earlier in the week. Even the small trip to Bank and back helped to get to know Iain and the others a lot better.

It’s always nice to get some more experience presenting. I feel that after watching the other two, I should have thought more about possible links to the curriculum that my activity offers. My skills at commuting have also greatly been helped. I also have a greater appreciation for all of the jobs that the Trust encompass through the interviews and just watching people work; it’s genuinely fascinating.

 

As for future work (as I’ve said before) I will definitely be looking into architecture as a possible course of study. However my interest in engineering, especially mechanical, has not lost me this week. It is clear however that jobs like the ones practiced hear all have to work together in order to reach a project. I rarely (if ever) happens that an engineer can pull something off without the help of at least an architect.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Iain Robertson on: February 23, 2016
Hi Patrick, It has been great having you here and I am glad you have learnt about a new possible career horizon. You displayed your presenting skills well. I think that when creating activities it is important to have curriculum links but there is also a place for a very engaging activity, in this case it is important to make the aim clear. You are very welcome to contact us for further work experience, or perhaps in a few years when you are looking for work. Sincerely Iain

Test Submission

1 of the "Test Submission" Student Studio Workbook

This is the default text!

This is a test.

Supervisor Comments

Test

1 of the "Test" Student Studio Workbook

This is a test to show how students studio works

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Student test on: May 25, 2016
I am now expanding upon my answer, so that my supervisor will allow me to proceed to the next level.
Comment by Supervisor StuStu on: May 25, 2016
Very good work students. Could you though please expand upon you answer

Bear search

1 of the "Bear search" Student Studio Workbook

Are there any polar bears?

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Supervisor StuStu on: May 27, 2016
I think I saw one once.

Bridges Research

1 of the "Bridges Research" Student Studio Workbook

Different Types Of Bridges

Simple Arch Below deck. Short distance or simple materials.
Bowstring, Through And Tied Arch goes above deck. Bowstring and tied are where the arch connects to the deck.
Cable-Stayed Have one or more pylons with cables supporting the bridge deck. Cables fanned out.

Cantilever spar has one pylon that either leans away or towards the deck, and counterbalances the forces.

Cantilever Uses sections that self-support that are put together.
Beam One or more beams that go from one side to the other.

Could be simply a log.

Girder Simple bridge made form concrete girders that support the deck.

Box has concrete girders that have a hollow box shape are put together.

Continuous Truss Truss runs in one piece from one end to the other.
Moon Pedestrian bridge that has a very high, almost circular arch.
Movable Bridge can be moved for boats.
Pigtail Usually used for a road. Goes in a loop so that vehicles or pedestrians go under and over the bridge in a loop.
Simple Suspension Same structure as a rope bridge.
Suspension Deck is hung below cables from vertical suspender towers.
Truss Structure made out of connected shapes above the deck.
Truss Arch Arch below deck made from trusses in triangles.

 

London Millennium Bridge

The London Millennium Footbridge is a suspension bridge that opened in 2000 and was designed by Arup Group. The bridge is over 300 metres long and made up of three spans and two Y shaped piers in the water. It has 8 suspension cables below the deck to improve the view and to make it have a shallow profile. It is mostly made of steel with an aluminium deck. Because the bridge is light, some people experienced swaying when walking across it therefore dampers were fitted to control horizontal and vertical movement.

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is the world’s first and only tilting bridge and was designed by architect Wilkinson Eyre and engineer Gifford. It is made of steel and is 45m high and spans 105m wide over the river. It is a cable-stayed footbridge and was opened in 2001. The eye shape allows boats to pass when it pivots and the bridge was lifted into place in one piece by the Asian Hercules II, one of the world’s largest floating cranes.

Infinity Bridge

The Infinity Bridge in Stockton-upon-Tees has an asymmetric double tied arch and suspended deck. It is made from steel and reinforced concrete and was opened in May 2009. It is 273m long overall with 2 main spans and was designed mainly by Expedition Engineering and Spence Associates. It has an offset pier in order to allow water sports in the bigger gap. A temporary jetty was built in order to build the pier first then the smaller arch was put in place.  This arch was then used to stabilise the placing of the lower section of the bigger arch and this helped to reduce the stress during the construction of the bigger arch. It was welded together on site then put into place by the largest crane in the country.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: June 21, 2016
A really good piece of work, I can see that you have done lots of research and have really made an effort to investigate a wide range of bridges. In future it may be useful to use some images/sketches to help you remember the differences between each type of bridge. There is a good level of detail in your work and some really interesting facts.

Desk Study And Alignment Choice

2 of the "Desk Study And Alignment Choice" Student Studio Workbook

 

  Advantages Disadvantages
Option 1 ·         Doesn’t disrupt view of power station.

·         Requires less material and will be cheaper as it can get most of its strength from the railway bridge.

·         Avoids work piers.

·         Won’t disrupt main channel.

·         Could cause disruption to railway during construction.

·         Has to go over underground tunnels in the river

·         Has to avoid shore that’s valuable to environmental agency.

Option 2 ·         Shortest distance.

·         Will easily fit onto south side of the river.

·         Allows space to see the bridge from both sides.

·         Difficult to find room on the north side of the river for bridge access.

·         Longest route to bridge from the nearest train station.

·         Has to go over tunnels.

·         Has to go over the work pier.

Option 3 ·         Lots of space for access on both sides of the river.

·         Short route from train station to the bridge.

·         Longest bridge so will need the most resources and will cost the most.

·         Has to go over tunnels.

·         Disrupts main channel.

 

The bridge will be out in place for pedestrians to have easy access across the bridge to Battersea power station where houses will be built and to give an easy route to the nearest train stations. The bridge will also allow cyclists to have a quick and easy route across the river without cars and traffic.

In order to allow boats to pass the bridge in the easiest way, it would be best if the pier(s) is nearest the north side of the river so as not to block the main channel.

The bridge should match or compliment the power station and Chelsea Bridge therefore a good way to do this would be to match the colours so that they don’t clash. The Chelsea Bridge has red and white decorations and the power station is mainly brown and white so the bridge will be red, white and brown. Also the style will match and the bridge will not be too stylish or modern and will be simpler.

I chose to put the bridge on option 2 as it is the shortest distance and this is good as the main reason the bridge is being made is to enable cyclists and pedestrians to cross the river easily and quickly. Cyclists and pedestrians can easily come from the power station and onto the bridge and vice versa. Also, it will be far enough from the train bridge that it wouldn’t be blocked and can be its own style. In addition, it doesn’t block the main channel for boats and a pier can be put in on the north side of the river to keep the bridge stable without disrupting the shore.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: June 22, 2016
A really good job at completing a detailed comparison between the three sites. The table and bullet point format makes your work clear and easy to understand. During the day you completed a number of really good sketches and hopefully we will be able to develop one of these into a more detailed design.

Comparing Designs

3 of the "Comparing Designs" Student Studio Workbook

  Advantages Disadvantages
Design 1 (Fink Truss) ·         Strong design.

·         Simple design.

·         Might not fit with Chelsea Bridge.

·         Could be seen as ugly depending on the materials.

Design 2 (Bowstring Arch With Truss) ·         Nice looking design.

·         Fits with Chelsea Bridge.

·         Strong design.

·         Could be expensive to build.

·         Might need a lot of materials.

Design 3 (Cable-Stayed With Split) ·         Fancy design. ·         Could be expensive to build.

·         Could be a weak design

·         Could disrupt main channel

 

Maximum gradient = 1:12

Width of river = 265m

I originally chose the bowstring arch with truss design as I felt that it fit with the surroundings the best and is very strong. After, drawing it to scale, I realised that the arch would have to very long and thin in order to not block the view of the power station and to fit the pedestrian bridge. This meant that I changed my mind and felt that the truss design was the best.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: June 22, 2016
You have worked really hard today and have learnt a lot about the importance of scale. You have made intelligent decisions and have really looked into and understood the brief. Engineering involves a lot of drawing and sketching to scale is the best way to check that your design looks and feel right. You have a learnt a lot from this experience and did exactly what we do. You are going great! Well done.

Calculations

4 of the "Calculations" Student Studio Workbook

Live loads: People, Cyclists, Wind, Snow, Temperature

Dead loads= Fences, Beams, Deck

The pedestrian live loading applied to footbridges is typically 5kN/m²

I worked on creating a section of my bridge on GSA.

I did a lot of calculations to do with area, mass and cost of my bridge on paper.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: June 24, 2016
A fantastic days work yesterday! You completed a really good set of calculations that were laid out in a neat and understandable way. Writing clear calculations is a really important skill for an engineer as our work must be checked and read by a number of different people. One tip for the future would be to use fewer decimal places. In structural engineering the numbers are so big and we have made so many different assumptions it is often appropriate round them. In the afternoon you created a really good GSA model. You took to the software well and had a go at optimising your structure by changing some of the elements in tension to ties.

Presentation

5 of the "Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

Today I did my presentation PowerPoint and drew my final sketch in pen. Also, I researched about the construction of bridges.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: June 24, 2016
You produced a fantastic presentation that summarised the work you completed this week. You presented with confidence and engaged the audience but perhaps could have used fewer words on the slides. You articulated your answers to the questions well and gave intelligent and thoughtful responses. Overall you have worked really hard this week. You have had to respond to new challenges and tasks each day and have risen to these challenges with enthusiasm and demonstrated many of the skills needed to be a fantastic Engineer.

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

Type of bridge Advantages                              disadvantages Span
Suspension bridge Strong, any load is transferred into tension into the main cables. Main cables have to be anchored to resist it. Expensive and complex to build Medium- long  suspension
Arch bridge Strong, cheap, simple design and can be built with a wide variety of materials. Can cause river traffic and can limit the types of boat that can travel under it. Uneconomic use of materials. limited span unless multiple arches(viaducts) are built. short  arch
Cantilever bridge Easily constructed at difficult crossings by virtue of no falsework. Complex structures, difficult to maintain, very heavy and expensive. Medium – long  cantilever
Truss bridges Strong and makes efficient use of materials. Complex to construct and need a high level of maintenance. short  truss
Beam bridges. Cheap relative to other types of bridge and easy to build. Do not allow large boats or other tall vehicles to pass underneath.  beam
Cable stayed bridges “Stiffer” than suspension bridges and do not require great anchorage. Expensive Medium – long  cable stayed

 

Example of bridge Chief engineers Type of bridge span Material When was it built
Helgeland bridge Andra and partner Cable stayed bridge 1065m Concrete and steel 1991
Gateshead millennium bridge Wilkinson eyre/glifford and partners Tilt bridge 126m Steel arch, steel cables 2000
Infinity bridge Expedition engineers Tied Arch bridge 240m Weathering steel, stainless steel and reinforced concrete 2009
London millennium bridge arup Suspension 325m Steel 2000
Golden gate bridge Joseph Strauss, Irving Morrow, and Charles Ellis

 

suspension 2700m steel 1933

 

Material Advantages Disadvantages Cost
Steel Strong, ductile, recyclable, Susceptible to corrosion when exposed to air, humidity or water. Under certain conditions the steel will lose its ductility and become brittle. High expansion rate in different temperatures. Heavy therefore difficult to transport. £333 per metric tonne.
concrete Concrete ingredients are easily available.

Concrete can be easily handles and moulded to any desired shape.

Concrete can be easily transported from the place of mixing to place of casting before initial set takes place.

Concrete can be pumped or sprayed to fill into cracks and lining of tunnels.

Using steel as reinforcement it is possible to build any structure; be it lintel or a massive fly-over.

The monolithic character of concrete gives it better appearance and much rigidity to the structure.

The property of concrete to possess high compressive strength makes a concrete structure more economical than steel structure.

 

Low tensile strength (usually reinforced to avoid cracks). If soluble salt is present in concrete, then it may lead to efflorescence when comes in contact with moisture.

Concrete made with ordinary Portland cement, gets integrated in the presence of alkalis, sulphates.

 

£26 per tonne
stone Unique aesthetics, minimises maintenance costs as it resists weather conditions well, inexpensive , readily available in UK.  heavy, insufficient elasticity, difficult to connect. £195 per tonne
Timber Does not change shape as temperature increases, the effect of heat dries it out and increases strength, coefficient  thermal conductivity is very low, high amount of energy is needed to increase and decrease the temperature of wood, has good sound absorption properties. Flammable, Wood is a hygroscopic material. This means that it will adsorb surrounding condensable vapours and loses moisture to air below the fibre saturation point, Depends on the type of wood.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Joe Ormrod on: July 6, 2016
Alex has made good progress with the research task. He has been able to identify the important characteristics of a range of bridges which will be beneficial for the design aspects of the project. Well done.

choosing a route

2 of the "choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Proposed bridge Who does it serve Access point span
1 Pedestrians and cyclists  option 1 160m
2 Pedestrians and cyclists  option 2 180m
3 Pedestrians and cyclists  option 3 260m

 

 

Proposed bridge Obstacles
Option 1 ·         River walls

·         Tunnels under river

·         Intertidal foreshore

·         Navigation chanel

·
Option 2 ·         River walls

·         Tunnels under river

·         Intertidal foreshore

·         Working piers

·         Navigation chanel

 

Option 3 ·         River walls

·         Tunnels under river

·         Intertidal foreshore

·         Navigation chanel

 

 

 

 

option Disruption to railway line  /6 Pedestrian access /6 Build cost /6 Navigation channel /3 Intertidal foreshore

/3

Disruption to working piers

/3

Appearance

/3

Convenience

/3

total
1 1 5 4 2 2 3 2 2 21
2 6 3 5 2 2 1 1 2 22
3 6 6 2 2 2 2 3 3 26

 

 

 

Preferable option- option 3

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Joe Ormrod on: July 7, 2016
Alex took a logical and considered approach to the decision making process. A bit more practice in sketching will be beneficial - something to work on. Continuing to make good progress!

Project research

1 of the "Project research" Student Studio Workbook

Examples of Bridges

Millennium Bridge

Shape: ‘Blade of light’ suspension bridge which has supporting cables which are below the deck level and so has a very shallow profile.

Dimensions: The bridge has a span of 144 metres. A width of 4 metres and a length of 325 metres.

Material: The bridge has steel suspension cables. Steel is very strong and relatively cheap which is why it is used as suspension cables in this bridge. The bridge also has an aluminium decking. Aluminium does not corrode and therefore does not need protective paint.

Construction began in 1998 by Monberg and Thorsen. It was opened in 2000 but closed again due to an obvious wobble. The bridge had to be retrofitted with 37 fluid-viscous dampers which controlled horizontal motion and 52 tuned mass dampers which controlled vertical motion.

Arup was the chief engineer of the millennium bridge.

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

Shape/design: Tilt bridge/’blinking eye’. It is fitted with hydraulic rams which can rotate the bridge to allow ships to pass underneath.

Dimensions: The bridge has a span of 105 m a width of 8 m a length of 120 m.

Material: The bridge is made from steel and reinforced concrete.

Construction began in 1998 and was completed in 2001. The bridge was made offsite and lifted into place in one piece by a crane.

The chief engineer was Gifford Graham and partners.

Infinity bridge

Shape: asymmetric double tied arch and suspended deck. The bridge has two arches and one pier in the water. It was nicknamed infinity because its reflection in the water makes it look like the symbol for infinity ∞.

Dimensions: The bridge has a span of 120m and a length of 272m.

Material: The bridge is made from reinforced concrete and steel.

Construction began June 2007 and was completed in May 2009. It was built by Balfour Beatty. A temporary jetty had to be built to allow a cofferdam to be safely constructed. This allowed the safe construction of the central pier.

Whatmans Field downstream bridge

This bridge was designed by Flint and Neill. It has a length of 75 m and is made from steel. It is a beam shape with two v-shaped piers. The bridge has circular cut-outs underneath which provide a unique design as well as facilitating easy maintenance inspections. Construction started in 2000 and finished in 2001 with Balfour Beatty as the contractor.

Hacking Ferry bridge

The hacking ferry bridge designed by Flint and Neill has unique triple leg arched design. The three leg design is due to the particular topography where two rivers meet. Each leg has a span of 43.5 metres and the bridge has a height of 8 metres.

Possible designs:

Suspension bridge: can be built high. This is means that we can build it above the minimum height required for the water ways. Temporary supports do not need to be built. This means that busy roads and waterways do not need to be disrupted. Suspension bridges are flexible so in extreme conditions they can be very instable eg the Tacoma narrows bridge which collapsed. When built in soft ground they need very strong foundations to combat the heavy load on the foundation towers

Arch Bridge: very strong due to the arch structure. The more the bridges are compressed the stronger they get due to the arch structure. Arch bridges can only be so big. They require extra maintenance because they flex and move under strong loads. They take a relatively long time to build because they need to be constructed in exactly the correct way.

Tilt bridge eg the millennium Gateshead bridge. This is a unique design that allows boats to pass through whilst being relatively unobtrusive. However it will be complex to construct.

Cable stayed bridge: relatively short construction time compared with suspension bridges. They are much stiffer than suspension bridges.

Bascule Bridge: made of two parts which are connected in the middle. The two parts can part to allow ships to pass through the middle.

Reflective diary

Today I researched different bridges to help me understand the different aspects which were considered when designing a bridge. I looked at 3 very different styles of bridges which give me an idea of the huge variety of designs and materials and structures. I particularly liked the infinity bridge because it had an iconic design as well as being relatively easy to build. I also researched the different design structures including Suspension tier arched and bascule. As I was carrying out my research I concluded that the things that I needed to consider in my initial concept design were:

  1. Structure
  2. Materials
  3. Dimensions
  4. Location
  5. Projected cost
  6. How it would affect the local urban environment
  7. What are possible issues that could arise?

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Volodymyr Opanasiuk on: July 11, 2016
Very good bit of research! You are asking the right questions. The work of structural engineer is essentially a loop: 1) What is my design? 2) What are the problems with my design? 3) How can I fix it? 4) Make changes. 5) Back to question 1.... This goes on until you are sure that the design works. One thing I would add to your list is consideration of construction sequence: 8. How is the bridge going to be built?

initial concept

3 of the "initial concept" Student Studio Workbook

I sketched various concept designs for bridge option 3. out of 5 designs I chose the one I liked the most and elaborated on that.I then calculated the length that the ramp and stairs had to be then I sketched the building to scale.

I thought about the reasons for using steel and concrete and talked about why I used a lift as a pose to a ramp on the roadside of the bridge.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Joe Ormrod on: July 12, 2016
Alex showed a good aptitude for sketching, coming up with a range of feasible and well communicated designs. He was able to develop his formal drawing skills through the introduction of scale, plan and section. The decision to use a lift rather than a ramp on one side of the bridge was a good decision based on an understanding of the available space and the requirements for ramp gradients. Very well done.

Choosing a route

2 of the "Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Planning your time

  1. Do desk study
  2. Finalise alignment
  3. Do reflective diary
  4. Start initial concept design
  5. Choose 2 or 3 options to take forward.
  6. Choose final option
  7. Finalise design
  8. Prepare presentation

Desk Study

  1. The footbridge will serve both pedestrians coming to and from the renovated Battersea Power Station site as well as cyclists on the cycle path. Therefore it needs to accommodate both groups of people
  2. The bridge needs to avoid the two working piers, the navigation channel and the many tunnels under the river. As well as this we need to take into account the flood defence walls which could be raised in the near future. Finally the intertidal foreshore needs to be avoided and there is a preferred zone for a pier.
  3. The Battersea Power Station is an art deco design and so the design of the bridge needs to complement that. The bridge also needs to work with the nearby Grosvenor bridge which is an arched bridge and the Chelsea bridge which is a suspension bridge.

Chose an alignment:

Option 1:

Attach a new footbridge to existing rail road.

Advantages:

Fewer materials required because you can take the strength from existing bridge.

Does not disrupt the view from Battersea Power Station

Shorter construction time required.

Disadvantages:

Will disrupt the railway during construction.

Further away from Pimlico Station.

No clear entry/exit point.

Option 2.

Shortest option – build a bridge straight across.

Advantages:

Cheap

Few Materials required

Easy access from Power Station side

Disadvantages:

Inconvenient access to Pimlico

Pavement is thin on the north side

Need to avoid working pier

Option 3.

Advantages:

Good access from Pimlico station

More access space from the north side

Easy access to cycle path on South Bank.

Avoids most of the obstacles including the tunnels and the working piers.

Disadvantages.

Long route so more materials required so possible slightly more expensive.

I decided to choose Option 3 because despite being much longer and therefore possibly more expensive it has good access on both sides of the river and it avoids most of the obstacles in it. I decided against Option 1 because I felt that the disadvantages of the rail disruption and the poor access to the bridge outweighed the benefits of being able to attach the new footbridge straight onto the railway bridge. Finally I rejected Option 2 because I felt that it would need to much work to improve the access on the north side of the bridge and that that would outweigh the advantages of having a shorter bridge.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Volodymyr Opanasiuk on: July 11, 2016
All good, from the sketches you showed it seems like you are moving in the right direction. Settle on one option and start developing it. Think about the issues we have discussed today and record your decisions.

Initial concept development

3 of the "Initial concept development" Student Studio Workbook

For my final design I chose the cable stayed bridge because despite having a tall and relatively obtrusive tower I felt that it was the best for this location. The bascule bridge would have been very long meaning that the ends would have been very thick to compensate for the bending moment about the piers. Moreover the bascule bridge would have been lifted during some points of the day causing disruption for potential pedestrians using the bridge. The arched bridge would have required heavy construction work on both banks to prevent rotation caused by heavy wind acting on the arch.

My design does not block the navigation channel because the tower is in the preferred location and the height is above the minimum 9.91 metres clearance required. The span of the bridge is approximately 270 metres. The ramp on the south side will require about 60 metres which is possible. The ramp on the north side is much shorter so it will fit without too much disruption to the road.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Volodymyr Opanasiuk on: July 12, 2016
Nice one

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

The construction materials will be brought to the site on the south bank using the main road. The foundations for the main tower will need to be constructed in a temporary cofferdam. To minimise disruption in the area the foundations in the river will be constructed first. The bridge will need a temporary pier in the water to support it during construction.

Supervisor Comments

Research into proposed bridge

1 of the "Research into proposed bridge" Student Studio Workbook

Initial research focused on looking at existing footbridges spanning rivers and a look specifically at the site of the new proposed footbridge spanning the river Thames at Battersea Power Station, Nine Elms.

Bridge research focused on three main bridges; the London Millennium Bridge, the Gateshead Millennium Bridge and the Infinity Bridge. All three bridges used a predominately steel construction with the deck supported by suspension from a supporting structure.

The London Millennium Bridge used a method of suspension running alongside the deck to maintain a thin and low profile, providing minimum visual disturbance. The bridge spans 325 metres with a longest single span of 144 metres and is 4 metres wide. The bridge opened on June 10th, 2000 but closed again shortly due to a severe swaying motion. The swaying motion was a result of the pedestrians compensating for a small initial swing, causing the bridge to swing back thus setting up a resonance effect building the lateral motion to a dangerous level. The bridge re-opened on February, 20th 2002 after the retro fitting of dampers to prevent this lateral motion. The bridge’s main engineers were Arup and the final cost was £18.2 million, £2.2 million over budget.

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge uses a curved deck supported from a arch with stressed steel cables. The bridge is able to tilt though 40 degrees to allow tall ships and other river traffic to sail under the two arches using a number of hydraulic rams. The bridge spans 126 metres, with the longest single span being 105 metres and is 8 metres wide. The bridge opened September 17th, 2001 for a final cost of £22 million with the main engineers being Gifford.

Finally the Infinity Bridge is a mainly concrete and steel suspension bridge crossing the River Tees. The bridge is made of two main arcs that are connected with a small inverse arch at the single support to create a single curve that acts as the support structure for the deck; a highly unique design. The bridge spans 240 metres with a longest single span of 120 metres, is 5 metres wide and 40 metres high. The bridge opened May 16th, 2009 for a cost of £15 million. The main engineers for the bridge were Expedition engineering with Flint & Neill conducting the independent checks.

Site research based around finding the OS Grid reference of the site and then producing topography maps and cross sections as well as using images from the local area to be able to evaluate the alignment options.

Battersea Thames Bridge Local Topography

Battersea Thames Bridge Location

The OS Grid reference for the site was obtained using the online site UK Grid Reference Finder as TQ 28925 77690. Then using a specific program written within Matlab the topography of the area surrounding the location of the new bridge was mapped. The opportunity was also taken to image 2D cross sections of the topography across the river at 5 degree intervals from 0 to 45 degrees clockwise of Map North, this helps to check feasibility of bridge alignment options.

Battersea Bridge Topography 45 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 0 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 5 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 10 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 15 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 20 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 25 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 30 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 35 degreesBattersea Bridge Topography 40 degrees

 

Further research needed:

What height restrictions apply limiting the overall height of the bridge apply to the site and do different orientations of bridge have different restrictions?

What traffic uses the river and as such what clearances does the bridge need to allow; does the bridge need to tilt/swing out of the way?

Is it possible to use piers in the water or is a single span required?

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 19, 2016
Well done. It is often good to record not only why you made certain choices, but also why you dismissed other choices. That will help you to remember a few years down the line when someone asks the question. Bridge projects generally take several years from concept to completion. So you will have forgotton most of your reasons for doing one thing or another. Therefore keeping the record is good practice. As you have now shown above, you considered numerous types of design, but decided to rule out some of them as they are not suitable for our application.
Comment by Jack Peake on: July 19, 2016
Thank-you Jayson, I had a very brief glance at these types yesterday and have done some more work on them now as below. I will try to take on board the write-up techniques, thank-you for sharing them. Steel arch bridges: Thrust arch bridges rely on good foundations to stop the arch collapsing so would not be suitable due to the location and the likely make-up of the ground around the site making foundations prohibitively expensive. Tied arch bridges use the bridge deck to hold the arch of the bridge together and only need relatively small foundations so would be suitable on those grounds. However making this type of bridge able to clear the river traffic may be difficult, something to be determined at a later date. Truss bridges: Deck truss bridges have been ruled out as having the truss under the bridge would increase the problem of fouling river traffic. A through truss bridge could be used as it again supports from above using a truss and may be easier to adapt to clear the river traffic. Beam bridges: Bream bridges use a simple beam rested on two supports to carry the load on the bridge however this type of bridge is unlikely to be feasible for the length of span required. I will now make a start on the second stage of the task, if you feel I should do more work on any of the previous section please let me know.
Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 18, 2016
Well done Jack. A good first day's work. However, can I suggest that you expand you research on the types of bridges? All the bridges you have chosen are modern suspension or tied arch bridges. Did you give any consideration to simpler forms (e.g. steel arch, truss, beam, box girder)? You may quickly rule some of these forms out for the design we are looking at due to the spans required or the aesthetics, but it is valuable to have a brief look and broaden your scope as much as possible. A quick note for writing up your findings as well. While what you have presented is very good and well written, we don't want you to waste too much time in writing (it also means I have more checking to do). Tomorrow, why don't you try to divide different section into different styles of writing? You could record your morning's work in a similar way to what you did today (which will be similar to the technical reports you will have to write as an engineer). But often you just want to convey the main points as succinctly as possible. So very brief bullet points could be used to give a good overview of the material. We can discuss this tomorrow if you wish.

calculations

4 of the "calculations" Student Studio Workbook

On day 4 I calculated the height of the steel trusses required for my span using the span to thickness ratios for steel. I calculated the live load on the bridge, the weight of  the bridge according to the different materials I used for each part of the bridge, the lateral force acting on the bridge(wind) and the weight that each supports needed to take.

I also created a construction sequence in which I thought about how the building materials would be transported and put together.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Joe Ormrod on: July 19, 2016
Alex took well to the calculation aspect of this task and quickly got to grips with the new concepts introduced. I would have liked to have seen the calculations set out a little more logically but all of the maths was correct. Alex also showed that he was able to think about the practicalities of the construction project with a considered and well-presented construction sequence.

Desk study of Nine Elms area and bridge alignment proposal

2 of the "Desk study of Nine Elms area and bridge alignment proposal" Student Studio Workbook

Nine Elms area

The Nine Elms area surrounding the 1930s Art Deco Battersea power station is undergoing a redevelopment and as such the bridge is to link the South bank to the North bank of the river Thames to enable better access to this area. The key users will be pedestrians and cycle traffic accessing the Nine Elms site as well as using the bridge to pass from one section of the Thames pass on the North bank to the other section of the Thames bank on the South bank. The bridge should be suitable for users of all abilities and for commuters and pleasure tourists alike. It is desirable to have good access for users coming from the nearby Pimlico station on the North bank side of the river.

The bridge must avoid interfering with the two working piers on the South bank, the shipping traffic, the underground utility tunnels and the intertidal foreshore areas on both banks. The bridge must maintain a minimum clearance of 9.91m above sea level above the centre of the river and above the South bank to ensure the river traffic is kept clear. Also the use of a pier in the river would be problematic because of the number of service tunnels and the foreshore areas.

Alignment options

Option 1

Option 1 would be to add a pedestrian deck to the side of the existing railway bridge.

Advantages

  • Minimal visual impact as no new bridge is required.
  • New deck is able to gain most of the support needed from the existing railway bridge.

Disadvantages

  • This alignment would not provide convenient access for users coming from the local Pimlico railway station.
  • Also this alignment has minimal area to provide access at either end of the bridge, possibly producing bottle necking.
  • Finally the disruption required to the railway bridge would be difficult and very expensive to manage.

Overall this alignment would not be suitable as the poor access at each end of the deck and the disruption required to the railway line would be feasible.

Option 2

Option 2 is to build a new bridge straight across the river in front of the power station.

Advantages

  • This alignment would be the shortest option for a bridge reducing costs.
  • This option would also be easy to fit into the South bank side and provide good access at the power station end.

Disadvantages

  • The area for landing the bridge on the North bank is very limited and would be difficult to accommodate due to the very narrow pavement.
  • Also access from Pimlico Station is still not very convenient with this alignment.
  • Finally this alignment comes very close to one of the working piers on the South Bank potentially causing unnecessary problems with the operation of this pier.

The second alignment option would be possible but once again undesirable due to the access and complications regarding the North bank end of the bridge.

Option 3

The third and final option would be to build a bridge at approximately 45 degrees clockwise of map North from the front right of the power station across the river.

Advantages

  • There is more space for landing the bridge on both banks, especially on the North bank where space is problematic.
  • This alignment provides convenient access for users traveling from Pimlico railway station to the Nine Elms site.

Disadvantages

  • Option 3 requires the longest bridge of all the options, increasing the potential construction costs.
  • Also this alignment would make access from the West side of the North bank less convenient than other options.

This alignment is the most suitable as it provides the best user access as most of the users will be likely to be heading from/towards Pimlico station and this alignment will also make the landing of the bridge on each bank easier. Therefore it is this alignment I have chosen, despite the increased length as I believe this alignment or the bridge will provide the most benefit to the site and fulfil the brief best.

Stakeholder Meeting

The stakeholder meeting with the local councils (supervisor) provided an opportunity to discuss the proposal and choices currently made to date. The three possible alignments were considered and the final choice of alignment 3 was justified. It was highlighted that further research into the spans of the bridge and the walking times with and without the bridge could be useful in further justifying the bridge. Consideration of the new use of the power station could also be useful to determine the main use of the bridge; I.E. for commuting or tourism purposes.

Daily Discussions with Staff

Andrew Benger – New build highway St Petersburg, Russia

Andrew and I discussed his role in overseeing some of the works regarding the new and final section of the main highway running through St Petersburg, Russia. This involved the construction of two suspension bridges, a dual decked truss bridge over a shipping canal suspended high in the air and a long suspended road deck over little used waterways. Many different techniques such as land reclamation, pile driving, bridge launching and lifting bridge sections into way off existing parts of the bridge were discussed. The sheer size of the project amazed me and showed just how vast engineering could become.

Rachel Redding – Clifton and BT

Discussions with Rachel focused on the work undertaken in cooperation with the maintenance trust of the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol to maintain the structure and keep it in a safe and serviceable state. Also discussed was the assessments of BT towers and masts regarding the instillation of new, different antennas and dishes and the work relating to checking the structure was able to cope with these additions.

Joanna Bonnett – Gade Valley

Joanna talked with me about the work being undertaken to the Gade Valley section of the M25 motorway relating the strengthening the bridge decks to help maintain them in a safe tolerance and to prevent failure due to fatiguing and cracking of components. Also the problems involved with adding these additional features and working in enclosed spaces was discussed to a lesser extent.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 20, 2016
Well done Jack. Another productive day. As discussed yesterday, try to maximise your time when doing research. I find that somtimes, just sitting back from your work for 15min and brainstroming all possible questions, problems, arguments etc is useful as it may open up other areas that you didn't originally think of. Similarly, informal discussions with colleagues about the project or challenges within the project can give you more ideas about what to investigate and how to overcome those challenges. You can never do too much research. I have to say though, that you preempted most of my questions and had well thought out answers for them. So well done. Another point to keep in mind, don't get too focused on a single solution too early within the project. Try to keep an open mind for as long as possible and try to explore as many options as possible. The best solution is generally the most simple one, and not necessarily our favourite one. Certainly in the early research and concept stages you want to avoid getting "train tracked" down a certain path.

organising and presenting

5 of the "organising and presenting" Student Studio Workbook

Today I presented the work I had done over the week in a powerpoint presentation. I presented it to 3 of the engineers working at expedition and they asked me questions about my design.

Later in the day I interviewed 5 engineers and architects to get an idea of what to study and what an engineer spends their time doing. I gained a valuable insight into the life of a designer and am encouraged to take subjects that will allow me to pursue a career in engineering.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Joe Ormrod on: July 19, 2016
Although I wasn't able to witness Alex's final presentation, my colleagues told me that he presented well, showed that he had understood and engaged with the design project and was able to answer almost all of their questions. Those that he interviewed spoke highly of Alex and his enthusiasm for the subject. I hope that it has proved to be a valuable week. All the best for your future studies!

Research on three different bridges

1 of the "Research on three different bridges" Student Studio Workbook

Millennium Bridge (London)

  • links both sides of the river.
  • It was built in 1998 and was opened to the public in June 2000.
  • it has a low profile suspension, supported by cables.
  • 325m long and 4m wide.
  • it has aluminium decking which is light and easy to support, it also has stainless steel balustrades.
  • when constructing the bridge, the two y shaped armatures were first placed into the river then followed by the decking.

Gateshead Millennium Bridge (Newcastle)

  • it was opened in 2001.
  • spans 126m and is 8m wide.
  • it has a pair of arches with one forming the deck and the other supporting it. both arches pivot in order to allow boats to pass.
  • steel and reinforced concrete was used for the arches. the cables were made of galvanised wires.
  • the bridge was assembles on the bank of the river and then lifted into place by a floating crane.

Infinity Bridge (Stockton-On-Tees)

  • the build was led by expedition engineering
  • spans 240m and is 5m wide.
  • the shape of the arch is in a tied bow formation.
  • construction started in June 2007.
  • the arches were made of steel and were wielded together. the deck was made of reinforced concrete.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 20, 2016
Great research, really thorough look at suspension bridges and how they are built.

Choosing a route

2 of the "Choosing a route" Student Studio Workbook

Desk Study

Who does the proposed bridge serve, and where are they coming from?

the bridge will be serving pedestrians trying to access the power station. however, it will also be used by commuters and cyclists who wish to cross the river efficiently.

Usually, pedestrians will have to walk around the power station and towards the train line in order to cross the river- this would normally take 35 minutes. However, with the bridge, it will no longer mean that they have to walk around. This will save time and create a diversion.

What obstacles must the bridge avoid?

One obstacle is that there are water pipes and various tunnels owned by Thames Water. The bridge should be constructed at a safe distance away from these, in order to avoid any damage as damage could cause problems to the local area.

Also, there is a navigation channel in the river which means that the bridge must allow for boats to pass easily with enough height clearance. Furthermore, due to the changes in the tide, it will mean that the bridge must be built at a safe distance to allow for the changes in the tide.

How should the bridge relate to other nearby structures?

In order for the bridge to be approved for construction it must suit the area and its historic heritage. Nearby, there are two other bridges that date back before the 1930s so the bridge must be able to compliment the pre-existing bridges in style and design.

Choose an alignment

Alignment 1

Advantages:

  • requires fewer materials due to the existing railway line.
  • it will not disturb the view from the power station as it is further away.
  • it is near a road so it will be easy to access.

Disadvantages:

  • the railway line may need to closed for a short time to allow for the construction of the bridge.

Alignment 2

Advantages:

  • the route is much shorter which will also mean it is quicker to build.
  • it is much closer to the power station

Disadvantages:

  • the view from the power station will be disrupted as it is much closer.
  • this route is not so close to Pimlico station.

Alignment 3

Advantages:

  • closer to Pimlico station so will be of more use to pedestrians from that area.

Disadvantages:

  • the route has many obstacles including tunnels.
  • much longer route which will require more materials and will take much longer to construct.

 

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 20, 2016
Really good understanding of the site and detailed options appraisal.

Initial Concept

3 of the "Initial Concept" Student Studio Workbook

Initial Concept Development

If the bank is high enough, then users will be able to directly access the bridge from the bank. However, if the bank is too low and will not be able to let the bridge clear the height restriction then a ramp will need to be made. On the south side, there will need to be a set of stairs that will lead up to the deck of the bridge also a lift that will take disabled users onto the deck. On the north side, the bank is high enough therefore the deck of the bridge can be attached directly onto the bank.

The bridge will be directly attached to the bank with the arches being supported further into the river on separate supports. the arch will not span the whole length of the bridge.

The bridge will be supported by metal cables from the arc and also additional support from below using reinforced concrete armatures. In order to take on the load, the cables can be pre stressed so that they don’t stretch too much once a force is applied. The metal cables will be spread across the full span of the bridge in order to spread out the load.

For the metal cables that will support the deck from above, I will be using galvanised wires. This because not only are they able to withstand large amounts of stress but they are also resistant to corrosion. For the deck, I will be using aluminium as it is dense but also light. The arch will be made with steel in order to provide more support to the cables. For the arch a I will be using aluminium as it is light yet strong.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 21, 2016
well thought through design, ready for some more sketches
Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 21, 2016
well thought through design.

Bridge Design

3 of the "Bridge Design" Student Studio Workbook

Initial Designs

8 initial designs were created with various types and designs of bridges and access ramps incorporated. All designs were made to meet the basic requirements of keeping the required clearance over the river and providing full accessibility to all users.

Initial Bridge Designs for Review

Design Team Meeting

These designs were then discussed between both parties and the advantages and disadvantages of each design discussed. This allowed several designs to be ruled out leaving just design numbers 6 and 7 to be chosen from. Design 6 aimed for a very minimalistic approach using a pair of steel arches supported using an offset pillar with the aim being to emphasize the iconic Battersea Power Station. Design 7 used the idea of a cable stay bridge using an offset support tower to support the bridge deck sections either side. It was decided that design 7 was the best suited to the task and has such been taken into further development as discussed within the meeting.

Chosen Design

The chosen design was modified to have shorter and thinner access ramps on the North bank but to use two, one from each direction, instead of one. Also both access ramps use a spiral design to make them extend away from the bridge less. A set of access steps were added to the East of the South bank ramp to allow convenient access on foot to Nine Elms lane side of the site. Finally the design of the tower and stays were changed; the tower became a triangular design to suit the new Y shape of the bridge and solid steel stays were decided upon to save on problems encountered with the use of cables.

Thought was also given to the construction of the bridge and, due to limited space on site to the North, the use of prefabricated steel and concrete sections allow for the majority of the bridge to be brought to site using the river to be lifted into place. This should hopefully minimise disruption to the homes and businesses on the North bank and make construction quicker and safer. Finally the use of stainless steel is justified on the grounds of maintenance as to reach much of the tower for maintenance would be difficult, dangerous and expensive so using stainless steel should greatly reduce the maintenance needed.

Chosen Bridge Design Drawings

Daily Discussions with Staff

Simon Wadsworth – Erskine Bridge

Discussions with Simon focused on the works required to maintain Erskine Bridge by doing little work but often to update and maintain the bridge. Talks also focused on how the loadings and requirements of the bridge have changed over time and how the bridge has been altered to suit these new demands.

Richard Hollamby – Destructor Bridge

Richard talked with me about the checking process and modelling process related to Destructor Bridge in Bath as well as more generically how checks and simulations are run and tested.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 20, 2016
The design is coming together nicely. I was very happy with the range of designs you came up with. You looked at different styles and understood quite well what the limitations of each scheme was. I think your sketches could have been a bit bigger with more labels/annotations so that other people can readily understand them without you having to explain what is shown (e.g. imagine having to email these sketches to someone without discussing them face to face). Your sketch for your final chosen design is much better. You used plenty of lables and have made the sketches nice and big. It is also good to see that you are willing to take on board suggestions from others as was demonstrated in our 'design team metting' today. Certain aspects of the design could be a bit more polished. Hopefully these things will fall into place tomorrow. Certainly when trying to convince a client, attention to detail is important.

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Calculations:

The live loads on the bridge will include pedestrians (80kg) and cyclists (95kg). Live loads are loads that are moving. Dead loads are the actual weight of the bridge that does not move.

the supports will need to take the weight of the arch, deck and the pedestrians/cyclists.

Construction Sequence:

  1. First, foundations will be sunken into the bed of the river. Followed by the two reinforced concrete armatures that will be fixed into the foundations. Foundations will be made by hammering pillars into the river bed.
  2. Next, the arch will be brought in. The arch will be split into half and then both sides will be bolted together once they are fixed into the supports. Both sides of the arch will be fixed to the concrete armatures and cables will be hung off the arch preparing for the arrival of the deck.
  3. The deck will then be attached to the cables in sections. three sections will be made. the two sections on either side will be attached first, followed by the middle section. In order to bring the sections of the deck to parts where the river is, you can use a floating crane.

As there is a river, material can be brought to the sight on the river in order to avoid large traffic jams in the city. Also, there are large areas of un-used land next to the banks, these can be used to place the materials and then they can be brought closer to the site of the bridge by a crane. In order to make sure the arch is stable whilst the deck is being attached we can use scaffolding.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 21, 2016
great thoughts about the construction sequence, in particular getting materials to site in a busy city

Presentation

5 of the "Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

For this section I created a power point summarising what I have done in the past 4 sections with images to make it easier to visualise. Also, I created a story board of the construction process using tracing paper. Finally, I finished a sketch of my final idea in neat.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Eleanor Voss on: July 21, 2016
amazing job!! a great engineer. Well done

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Calculations

Volumes of material

The deck sections are deigned to be made of precast concrete sections that will be 1 metre thick and 17 metres long for the main spans of the bridge, other sections will be needed for the access ramp. The column that supports the bridge will be made of stainless steel, decided upon due to the lack of access for maintenance, and be mainly hollow with strengthening diaphragms at appropriate spacing. The stays will be made of steel rods.

Approximate volume of precast concrete used = 3200m3

Approximate volume of steel used = 13875m3

Mass of bridge and loads

Deal Load

The dead load of the bridge comes from the materials used, this has been estimated using the calculated volumes and the supplied data sheet as follows:

Total dead load = 1.14×109 N

Dead load with safety factor = 1.59×109 N

Live Load

The live load of the bridge comes from the pedestrians and cyclists using the bridge. To provide an even bridge loading the cycle lane will be directed down the center of the main deck with pedestrian access down both sides. The live loads calculated have been worked on the maximum possible loadings that the bridge is likely to experience assuming a fully loaded deck of pedestrians. This could occur if the bridge was used as a viewing platform for a display of some kind at the new Nine Elms development site.

Maximum live load = 1.60×107 N

Maximum live load with safety factor = 2.56×107 N

Wind Load

The bridge is situated across the river Thames and as such is likely to experience relatively high winds for the localized area. The maximum expected wind loading have been assessed and then the different safety factor scenarios tested to find the maximum bridge loading.

Total wind load = 2.74×104 N

Maximum Bridge Load

Two scenarios were trialed; one where the bridge was fully packed with pedestrians and a mild wind was blowing (dead load, live load and mild wind) and the other where a gale force wind was blowing but no pedestrians were present on the bridge (dead load and strong wind).

Dead load, live load and mild wind = 1.62×109 N

Dead load and strong wind = 1.59×109 N

From these calculations it can be seen that the bridge will experience a maximum predictable loading of 1.62×109 N in extreme circumstances.

Calculations for bridge design

Calculations for bridge design continued

Calculation Problems

The calculations related to the bridge design were greatly simplified for the purpose of this task and as such are not very accurate for the real world modelling of the bridge. Also during calculations the transcribing of one of the equations was carried out wrongly leading to minor errors relating to wind forces being encountered.

One key learning point was about how work was done and how work and especially calculation were set out; the need to have neat, clear well labeled notes was highlighted when trying to trace problems and this is something I will try to take forward with me.

Construction Sequence

The following construction sequence is a greatly simplified version of the type that would be used in reality however hopefully gives a reasonable representation of the requirements of bridge construction.

Foundations

  • Sheet piles are used to create a boxed off area around the foundations that can then be pumped dry to allow construction.
  • Once a dry working area has been established the foundations can be excavated and the concrete poured as required.

Tower

  • The tower is to be made of prefabricated steel sections that would be transported to site by boat using the river. The sections would then be lifted into place and bolted together.
  • The tower would be erected up to deck level initially to allow the first section of deck to be fixed to the tower. With this complete the shielding around the foundations can be removed to allow the water to flow back around the foundations.
  • The tower can then be erected to full height with the deck stays and deck being attached as the tower is erected as per usual practice.

Deck & Wires

  • The deck consists of prefabricated steel sections that would be sailed to site and craned into place being supported by the cable stays once in place.
  • The sections will be fixed on either side of the tower to help maintain a balance to each side and will be supported using the previous section of deck and the cable stays once positioned.
  • The final section connecting the main span to the access ramps will be added in once both have been finished.

Access Ramps

  • The raised access ramp sections built on land can be built as the main span is being constructed to help minimize the time taken during construction and thus reduce disruption to local residents.

Ancillaries

  • The final wiring, lighting and other services and small structures (E.G. benches) can be installed once the main super structure of the bridge and access ramps have been completed.
  • Final checking and certifying of the bridge can now commence.

Daily Discussions with Staff

John Rees – Various civil engineering projects

John talked me through a presentation he has that he presents to local schools. This presentation contains many different projects and many unusual and “out of the box” ideas used to solve problems found.

A major project for Flint & Neill was related to the original Severn Crossing bridge where the excessive use of the bridge by heavily laden coal lorries leaving Wales was causing the bridge to fatigue a lot faster than expected. Work was undertaken to replace fatigued welds to trough stiffeners running under the bridge decks. Also work was undertaken to the cable stayed part crossing the river Wye to extend the bridge towers upwards and to then rehang new cables to support the deck better and give the bridge a higher loading capacity. Whilst doing this the deck needed to be maintained at a constant level and as such a special water based level system was used to monitor the level when changing between old and new cables. To add to the impressiveness the bridge only closed for two weekends with the other work continuing whilst the bridge was open to traffic. The other work to the bridge involved strengthening the two main towers on the suspension section over the Severn. To achieve this four new columns were constructed inside each of the old towers and were then jacked up to take the weight of the cables before being supported on shims; thus the load was shared between the old and new towers.

Another smaller but impressive structure was the “Ballerina Bridge” as it has become known. The bridge is only a small, simple supported beam bridge between the Royal Opera House and the Royal Ballet School in London. The bridge provides a climate controlled environment for ballerinas to cross from the Royal Ballet School where they warm up to the Royal Opera House where they perform.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 22, 2016
Good work today.

Final Presentation

5 of the "Final Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

Presentation

On the final day it was required to give a presentation to several fellow engineers about the design concept created and how this came from the brief. This presentation was given in the meeting room with 8 members of staff present including a company director. The presentation tracked the project from brief through to final concept design talking about the alignment chosen and reasons for choosing the final design. Questions were then taken and answered as well as possible; some technical questions were beyond the scope of my current knowledge. I feel the presentation went well with no major problems during the presentation and the discussion afterwards being able to answer most of the queries of the fellow staff members. Feedback from staff members was positive with comments about the reassured and fluid nature of the presentation with only the odd stumble.

New Thames Bridge

Daily Discussions with Staff

David Hayward – Mersey Gateway

David took me though the work he did with the office based analysis related to the design and structural modelling and testing of the Mersey gateway design. He then spent 6 months on site and we talked through the huge tasks of building the pylons, piers and deck. This involved a lot of complete concrete forming whilst battling the tides and problems relating to the concrete pouring. Cracks and substandard areas were discovered and as such had to be filled, replaced and waterproofed as required.

Jayson Ladd – Site visit to Clifton Suspension Bridge

Friday morning I accompanied Jayson to site at Clifton Suspension Bridge to undertake some checks on the work being undertaken by the contactor. After signing in and wearing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment we climbed the scaffolding around the Leigh Woods Tower and inspected various parts on most levels including masonry repairs, water proofing and painting works. Once this had been achieved we walked along the North East footpath (currently closed to the public) to inspect areas undergoing repair following work to the underside of the bridge which needed sections of the footway to be lifted. During the visit we discussed what work were taking place, what checks were required and how these checks should be done and then reported.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jayson Ladd on: July 22, 2016
Very good presentation. You could have extended it a bit more to incorporate your initial concepts as well, as questions were always going to be asked about your other concepts. A small note as well which will become more important in Uni and once you start work is always to spell check everything you do and re-read it for grammar. Universities often penalize you quite heavily for spelling errors and the same will be true for CVs when you start looking for work. (Having said that, I'm sure I've also made plenty of spelling mistakes in my commets.) Overall, I think you handled the project really well and achieved what was required. Hopefully you enjoyed it as well.

Day 1 diary

1 of the "Day 1 diary" Student Studio Workbook

Electrification means I can get to Wales quicker.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Emily Roebling on: August 2, 2016
It also means I can leave Wales quicker.

see word documents

1 of the "see word documents" Student Studio Workbook

(more…)

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Clare Taylor on: August 22, 2016
Good Work! A couple of comments. We usually design bridges with steel with a strength of 355N/mm2 rather than 370N/mm2, As engineers we design to codes which helps us design the bridge well. There is a code that helps to define things like the widths of the cycle/pedestrian lanes, heights of the parapets, recommend slope of the bridge or ramps. The link to access the code is here: S:\Flint Neill\ADM\library\Engineer Library\Highway Agency Documents\DMRB bd29_04.pdf It might help with the next stage of your design. Looking forward to seeing the design of the glass bridge!

see word

2 of the "see word" Student Studio Workbook

This is the default text!

Supervisor Comments

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

London Millennium Bridge

  • Span – 320m
  • Construction Started – 1996
  • Opened – 2000
  • Cost – £18.2M
  • Material – Steel
  • Function – Footbridge
  • Two y-shaped armatures support 8 cables that run along the side of the deck.
  • Steel transverse arms clamp on to cables at 8m intervals
  • Distance between highest and lowest part of cable never rises above 2.3m – Views are preserved
  • Eight suspension cables pull with force of 2,000 tons against the piers set into each bank – enough to support a working load of 5,000 people.

Gateshead Millennium Bridge

  • Span – 105m
  • Construction started – 2000
  • Opened – 2001
  • Cost – £22M
  • Material – Steel
  • Function – Bicycle and pedestrian bridge
  • 6 hydraulic arms rotate the bridge back on large bearings to allow small ships to pass underneath
  • Cost of this – £3.60 (very energy efficient)
  • Construction – Lift-in-one scheme was chosen because it is safer (no major operations carried out over water) and the time the waterway had to be closed was low.

Infinity Bridge

  • Span – 120m
  • Construction started – 2007
  • Opened – 2008
  • Cost – £15M
  • Material – Weathering steel, Stainless Steel , Reinforced concrete
  • Function – Bicycle and Pedestrian bridge
  • Has a pair of steel arches with suspended concrete decking
  • Reflex piece between 2 arches makes them a continuous curve
  • Construction – Temporary jetty was built on the south bank to enable the building of a cofferdam for the construction of the central pier. Steel false-work was constructed to support ends of incomplete arches.

Suspension Bridges

Load is dissipated down long cables attached to large towers. These cables are then anchored to the ground at either end.

Advantages

  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Can be built high, allowing tall ships to pass underneath
  • Low Maintenance – only need regular check up
  • Low amount of material needed – reduces expense.

Disadvantages

  • Synchronous lateral excitation – Bridge starts swaying and people on bridge sway in step – amplitude of swaying increases and problems get worse. The larger the number of people, the worse this problem gets. However it can be fixed by dampers.
  • Takes a long time to build and very disruptive to waterway.
  • Vulnerable to wind – high winds put weight on support cable, possibly causing it to break.
  • Need hard ground alongside the waterway.

Arch Bridges

Load goes downwards and along the arch, to the ground.

Advantages

  • High resistance to bending forces.
  • Pressure – Weight of anything goes straight down, instead of dispersing across the structure. this means that no single part of the bridge will take on too much pressure.
  • Can be built from many materials (including natural ones).
  • Can’t be distorted – low maintenance cost.
  • Becomes stronger as it works – it is compressed by weight on it.

Disadvantages

  • Constraints on Location – Foundations on both sides must be solid and stable as it requires more support from its sides than a normal bridge.
  • Takes a long time to build – disruptive to waterway.
  • Requires ongoing maintenance – materials often move and flex under wind loads, causing mortar that holds materials together, to disintegrate and crack over time.
  • Expensive – Large amount of materials, labour and time.
  • Length – Due to a large amount of materials needed, they can only really be used for short spans.

Cantilever Bridges

Works using moments as the large downward force, at either end, counteracts the load, around the pivot point of the anchor arm.

Advantages

  • Building out from each side means there’s little disruption to waterway.
  • Span larger than simple beams as you can add a beam to either cantilever arms.
  • Beam is resting on arms – Thermal expansion and ground movement are fairly simple to sustain.

Disadvantages

  • Large amount of materials needed – High cost.
  • Small amount of movement in cantilever arm will cause large movement in suspended span.
  • Span can’t be too long or huge downward force will be needed at either end.
  • Anchor arms must be strongly secured as if they move then the suspended span will start to break.

Truss Bridge

Structure of connected elements usually forming triangular units. Held together by the tension and compression of theses elements.

Advantages

  • Minimal material – Low cost
  • Very strong
  • Roadway can be built on top of structure – good views

Disadvantages

  • Complicated design -Takes very long time to make.
  • Maintenance – Lots of materials and parts so needs regular maintenance.
  • Very heavy – Surrounding land may not be able to support it.

Beam Bridge

Load is dissipated along the beam and shared by the two ends.

Advantages

  • Straightforward to build – can be built from one end and slide along.
  • Uses bending instead of tension/compression – If strong materials are used then this can be an advantage.

Disadvantages

  • Expensive – Large amount of strong materials needed as it’s a weak structure.
  • Building support piers is sometimes not possible, due to limitation of space.
  • Drooping – Bridge beams can droop between piers as there are different bridge loads acting downwards.

Materials

Timber

  • Elastic – Won’t snap easily.
  • Sustainable – Renewable materials.
  • Cheap
  • Doesn’t corrode in salt/air.

Disadvantages

  • Absorbs water – Shrinking and swelling.
  • Discolouration – Ugly.
  • Can mould or rot.

Steel

Advantages

  • Ductile – Wont fail under lots of stress.
  • High strength to weight ratio.
  • Elastic – Wont snap easily.
  • Maintains strength.

Disadvantages

  • Corrosion – Lots of maintenance needed.
  • Susceptible buckling.
  • Can lose ductility and become brittle.
  • Heavy – Expensive to export.

Concrete

Advantages

  • Doesn’t rot/corrode/decay.
  • Can be moulded/cast into shape.
  • Resistant to wind/rain.

Disadvantages

  • Low tensile Strength
  • Low ductility.
  • Low strength to weight ratio (heavy).
  • Susceptible to cracking.

Diary:

When I first came into expedition engineering, I was shown around the office. It was very modern and there was a nice, friendly atmosphere. The only thing I wasn’t so keen on was the fact that most people were at their computers all day, but I guess most jobs are like that nowadays. I then met Tom who would be looking after me for a week. My task is to design a bridge near Battersea Power station, for the new development that will be put there. I was interested in this task but didn’t know very much about bridges. I learnt a lot throughout the day about the different types of bridges and their advantages and disadvantages. I think I could have looked more into the actual physics being how the bridges work, and maybe less about their advantages and disadvantages. Tom took me to a very interesting meeting at lunch, involving some new software the company could use. After lunch I did some sketches of some rough ideas for designs and I thought this was quite fun.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: April 11, 2017
Harry has researched into multiple forms of bridges and materials, thinking about the pros and cons of each. He has started to think about how the system is working, however this will develop in the forthcoming days. Harry is enthusiastic to learn and asks good questions. He has produced some good early sketches demonstrating early design ideas, however these need to be developed as the process goes on.

Location

2 of the "Location" Student Studio Workbook

Option 1

Advantages

  • Won’t disrupt view of power station.
  • Uses railway bridge – Won’t need to add bridge piers as you can bind on to the railway bridge piers. This means that less materials are needed, and there’s less disruption to the waterway.
  • Good amount of pavement on the North side.
  • Nearby pedestrian crossing (on the North side).

Disadvantages

  • It will disrupt the the railway line when being constructed.
  • Would need to builds steps up to the level of the railway bridge.
  • Near to Chelsea bridge, which already has a footbridge.

Option 2

Advantages

  • Short – Low materials – Cheap.
  • 2 bus stops nearby ( on North side).
  • Would avoid all tunnels.

Disadvantages

  • Pavement is very thin.
  • Not convenient for Pimlico Station.
  • No pedestrian crossings nearby.
  • Large working pier on South side.

Option 3

Advantages

  • Very convenient from Pimlico and Victoria station.
  • Lots of pavement space on North bank.
  • Pedestrian crossing nearby (on North side).
  • Lots of apartment blocks nearby.

Disadvantages

  • Longest – Most materials – Expensive
  • Travels over almost all tunnels (bridge piers would be very troublesome.
  • Most disruptive to navigation channel.
  • Takes most time to build – Lots of disruption and high cost.

I chose option 1 mainly because of the lack of the disturbance, to the river. The Thames is a very busy river in the largest city in the U.K so keeping disturbance down, when building this bridge, is key. You would most likely not have to build any new bridge piers, as you could bind to the railway bridge piers, meaning that the river is not greatly affected by the construction of the bridge. Also, because of the use of the railway bridge piers, no tunnels would be affected when building this bridge. In addition, there will be good access to the bridge on the north side, as there is a large pavement and a nearby pedestrian crossing.

Diary:

I had an interesting day at Expedition Engineering. I started by looking at the area in which I will place my bridge, in great depth. I then decided which location to build it. I really enjoyed the talk at lunch, which was about a man who designed a Bluetooth speaker, made from a tennis ball. I then started doing some drawings for my ideas, which I enjoyed and I think I’m improving my drawing skills. I met some new people who gave me some tasks, one of which involved sorting out the 140 rejected C.Vs (only one was accepted)! This was a scary thought as that could likely be me in the future.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: April 12, 2017
Harry presented good enlargements for the three options, looking at what was good and bad for each. His final decision was the most sensible, with least disturbance to traffic on the river. As Harry is only working four days, he needs to make sure that he keeps good timing over his work and doesn't get too bogged down. His sketches are good, and can be built on for the next stages.

Design

3 of the "Design" Student Studio Workbook

Reason Behind My Design:

  • Low disruption – The bridge can be assembled relatively easily as it can be just be bolted together from the railway bridge. No new bridge piers are necessary, as two of the railway bridge piers can be extended slightly, to support the anchor arms.
  • Beam is resting on arms – thermal expansion and ground movement are fairly simple to sustain.
  • I would use thin bars of steel, minimising materials, which reduces expense.
  • Simple construction – This bridge could be assembled with a low amount of labour and time.
  • There’s not too much stress on the banks of the river, as the length between the anchor and the bank, and the anchor arms and the middle, is almost equal. This means, without load, the moments around the anchor arm are almost balanced.

Reasons I chose Steel:

  • Ductile – Wont fail under high stress.
  • High strength to weight ratio – don’t need to use a large amount which reduces cost.
  • Elastic – If it has a very high load, a slight bending will occur, instead of snapping.
  • Maintains strength – Will still be strong after years of use.
  • Recyclable – If bridge needs to be removed in the future, it can be recycled.
  • I will prevent rusting by coating my structure in paint. I will also add some sacrificial zinc blocks along different parts of the structure, which will help prevent rusting if the coating is damaged. It will have to be re-painted every year, so that there’s not too many gaps in the coating.

 

 

 

Diary:

Today I went on a site visit, with Tom, to Selfridges. They are doing lots of work regarding the drainage system and they went round the site, looking at the different pipes/drains, trying to get a better idea of what the system was like. I though this seemed like quite an enjoyable part of the job. I then went to a meeting with other engineers, architects and people of other professions. It was very interesting and I especially like them trying to tackle a tricky problem, revolving a pipe that needed replacing. We then came back to the office and I carried on finishing my drawing and writing up the ideas behind it.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: April 13, 2017
Harry spent all morning with me at Selfridges looking at some key parts of the store where problems exist. We then had a design team workshop where the full design team were present, along with the client and contractor which was useful to see how relationships pan out. Harry's design has developed well and is fairly elegant. His drawings are clear and demonstrate his thinking. One aspect which wasn't addressed at first was the access on to the bridge, which is a key issue. Harry has his presentation tomorrow and so needs to make sure that his design is in a clear format and that he can talk through his journey to getting to this point.

Construction

4 of the "Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Construction:

  1. Extend bridge piers – I will use concrete and drill into the existing bridge piers. I will add steel bars that will bind the two together.
  2. Steel towers – I will bolt on square towers to the bridge piers.
  3. Bank foundations – I will dig into banks and place the end of the bridge into these.
  4. Lift in sections – Other sections can be lifted in (by crane) and bolted to the towers. A temporary platform will be put in so this can be done.
  5. Path – The path (which is made from concrete), is split into two, and lifted in from either side. It is binded together in the middle, in the same way as step 1.
  6. Tarmac surface is applied to path.
  7. Handrail constructed from footpath.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: April 13, 2017
Harry thought about how the bridge would be constructed, but unfortunately did not have time to complete the calculations as he came to a design team meeting and then went on a site visit. If Harry had more time, it would have been nice to see some drawings to accompany his method however his description is clear.

Final Day

5 of the "Final Day" Student Studio Workbook

Today started by taking a sight visit to AKDN: a building sight near Kings Cross Station. It was very interesting , as the building was in an early stage and lots was going on. They were mainly lifting concrete slabs into place, to make up the walls, and filling in the concrete floors. I found the paint on the steel pillars, that turned into foam when heated, particularly interesting. We also met the contractor, who seemed nice and got on well with Clement (who was taking me round). I then came back to the office and started making my power point and getting ready for my presentation. The presentation was quite scary but it gave me good experience of standing up and putting across an idea, which is a key part of being an engineer. Overall I’ve found this week very interesting and I have learnt so much. I think I could be suited to being an engineer, but I am still not 100% sure. Tom has been very welcoming and helpful and everyone in the office seems really nice.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: April 13, 2017
Harry's presentation was very good, he did seem nervous at first but got his points across well and answered questions clearly and intelligently. Everyone was impressed with Harry's sketches and were impressed with the design and how it came from his early research. Overall Harry has been very enthusiastic towards this week and has worked hard. I wish him good luck in the next few years and would strongly encourage him to consider an engineering degree.

research

1 of the "research" Student Studio Workbook

Today i researched different types of dams, focusing on function and construction. Also i researched the largest, tallest and most expensive dams in the world. As well as these two research tasks i had a look at how dams are constructed.

types of dams research

record dams

Dam construction

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Nathan Gilling on: May 31, 2017
Research was thorough, well presented, and clear to read. It shows a good understanding of types of dams and their construction. This will help with the scheme design of the dam.

Day 2

2 of the "Day 2" Student Studio Workbook

from the nearest road to the dam, 1700m of track needs to be built and from the same road to the hydro there needs to be 400m of track built. in total 2100m of track needs to be built. this map demonstrates this. The power station is 1000m from the dam so there will be a 1100m steel buried penstock to transport the water to the station.

Nathan showed me a construction sequence of a project he had previously worked on. it clearly showed what methods of construction would be used in the correct order.

As the dam site is in a steep valley, digging a trench for the water to skirt aroun dthe site would be near impossible. instead I would put a cofferdam upstream of the site and dig pipes in underneath the site. this would allow for the water to flow at the time of construction. then, when ready, the pipes would be filled with concrete, and the cofferdam removed.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Nathan Gilling on: June 2, 2017
Good consideration given to the physical and logistical site constraints.

day 3

3 of the "day 3" Student Studio Workbook

 To deal with the weak soil I would excavate it with an excavator on track, so the steep terrain won’t give to many problems. Then using a dump truck, I would transport it to drop off points along the track from which the excavators would take it down the steep terrain, to the water pipeline to bury it. This  map shows exactly where the drop off points are.

Untreated cracks in the rock would reduce the stability of the dam greatly. To combat this, grouting can be used. This diagram shows the process of grouting in bedrock.

I would dig a deep trench that would act a key, to stop the dam from sliding downstream with the pressure of the upstream water. the trench would be a minimum depth of 2m so that it is into the bedrock as is as strong as possible. this diagram shows the profile of the land compared to the dam.

Nathan and I have chatted about the design of the dam and we both agree progress is being made.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Nathan Gilling on: June 2, 2017
Good re-use of excavated material for top cover to the new pipe.

day 4

4 of the "day 4" Student Studio Workbook

Concrete- cement, water, aggregate.

There are a couple of options concerning the production of concrete for the dam. The first option would be to transport the concrete to the sight, premixed, in trucks. The second option would be to build a plant on sight. To do this second option it would be required that a quarry be dug out for excavating aggregate for the concrete. The second option would be more efficient as there would be a lot less travel time involved. Water for the cement could be taken out of the river and then the only thing which needs to be transported to the sight would be cement, which would only require one or two journeys for a lorry.

From the plant, the concrete would be pumped straight to the dam to be poured into the formwork. The formwork for the dam is slightly more complicated than other builds as the dam is curved. This just means that when the formwork is being made it needs to precisely curved with exactly the correct radius of curvature.

Pouring the concrete in one go wouldn’t work for several reasons. Firstly, for the formwork to be able to hold all the concrete needed for the dam, it would have to be as strong as the dam itself. This is because the concrete will weigh roughly 18000 tonnes. Secondly, when concrete is poured in large amounts, the center of the mass of concrete heats up a lot as it dries. This causes cracking and crumbling within the concrete.

 

Where is the best place to do structural engineering?

“for more architectural structures, London is probably the best place”

Was it easy for you to find a job in engineering?

“yes, when I was applying for a job there where loads of offers available”

Do you use a lot of maths in your job (engineering)?

“Not a lot of really hard maths, often there is a program that can work out what I need to know. I’m always doing ‘back of the envelope’ sums to work things out, though. the only time I need to use really hard maths is when I need to program a spread sheet to work something out that is beyond any available computer program.”

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Nathan Gilling on: June 2, 2017
Good approximation method to work out the volume of the dam structure.

day 5

5 of the "day 5" Student Studio Workbook

I didn’t have any post its so I wrote timeline the on excel.

I felt my presentation went reasonably well, if a little hesitant at the start. also I forgot a couple of points but was asked about them so was reminded to talk about them.

The highlight of my week was going to the talks for the American students as it showed just how much effort goes into a project, and how interesting the challenges can be.

The bit I found hardest of my week was cramming five days work into four days.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Nathan Gilling on: June 2, 2017
Pretam gave an excellent presentation but would have benefited from following a structured list of all the points he wanted to make. I particularly liked the way he briefed the site constraints and he produced some good sketches to aid his explanation of some of his points. Pretam dealt well with the questions giving a good explanation of the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the dam design. Well done to get so much work done today.

Research on Bridges and the Battersea Site

1 of the "Research on Bridges and the Battersea Site" Student Studio Workbook

Link for Gateshead Millennium Bridge rotation:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7nXXy1NhpM

 

See Word Document for images and maps

 

Bridge Research Day 1

London Millennium Bridge

  • Suspension Bridge
  • Piers made from concrete and steel with an aluminium deck and 120mm locked coil cables.
  • Total length: 325 metres (1,066 ft.)
  • Width: 4 metres (13ft.)
  • Longest span: 144 metres (472 ft.)
  • Construction began in 1998 and the bridge opened on 10th June 2000
  • The bridge is aligned so that it shows a clear view of St Paul’s Cathedral on the north side as a terminating vista framed by the bridge supports.
  • The bridge is also the shape it is as the suspension cables are located below the deck rather than above on a traditional suspension bridge to give a clearer view of St Paul’s Cathedral
  • Arup Group, Fosters and Partners and Sir Anthony Caro won the competition run by Southwark Council and RIBA competitions in 1996 with an innovative “blade of light” effort.
  • The eight suspension cables are tensioned to pull with a force of 2,000 tons against the piers set into each bank – enough to support a  working load of 5,000 people on the bridge at one time.
  • The construction was completed by Monberg and Thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine.
  • Gateshead Millennium Bridge
    • Tilt Bridge
    • Conceived and designed by architect WIlkinsonEyre and structural engineer Gifford.
    • Total Length: 126 metres (413 ft.)
    • Width: 8 metres (26 ft.)
    • Longest span: 105 metres (344 ft.)
    • It was opened for public use in September 2001
    • It was constructed on the bank and then lifted into place in one piece by the Asian Hercules II (one of the world’s largest floating cranes) on 20th November 2000.
    • Often called winking eye bridge as it can rotate backwards like an eye to allow ships to pass below as it was designed to be innovative and have cutting edge technology.
    • It is rotated by 6 hydraulic rams powered by a 55kw motor and takes 4.5 minutes but due to the counterbalancing effect of the supporting arch which rotates forward as the pathway comes up minimum electricity is used costing only £3.96 each 40-degree rotation.
    • It is made of steel, concrete (foundations) and reinforced concrete.
    • Steel is a versatile and effective material for bridgeconstruction, able to carry loads in tension, compression and shear (strain produced by pressure in the structure of a substance, when its layers are laterally shifted in relation to each other). but being lighter than concrete.
    • Link of Gateshead Millennium bridge rotating:
    • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7nXXy1NhpM
    • Infinity Bridge
      • A duel tied arch or bowstring bridge
      • Called infinity bridge due to the image it forms with its reflection to form the infinity symbol. It was initially called the North Shore The bridge is lit at night. This lighting scheme was designed by Speirs and Major Associates. At night, the bridge handrail and footway are lit with custom-made blue-and-white LED lighting built into the handrail that changes colour as pedestrians cross the bridge; sensors trigger a change from blue to white, leaving a ‘comet’s trail’ in the person’s wake.
      • Total Length: 240 metres (787 ft.)
      • Width: 5 metres (6 ft.)
      • Height: 40 metres (131 ft.)
      • Longest span: 120 metres (394 ft.)
      • Number of spans: 2 river spans and 8 minor spans on approaches
      • Construction started in June 2007 and ended in December 2008.
      • Initial investigations for the footbridge were carried out by the White Young Green Group who produced a brief alongside English Partnerships for an international architectural design competition. Again RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) competitions organised the competition and it was launched in April 2003. The brief asked for a “prestigious” and “iconic landmark” footbridge at North Shore Stockton, to cross the River Tees (125 metres wide at that point).
      • Expedition Engineering with Spence Associates won the competition design so Expedition Engineering were the contracted lead designer and the construction was by Balfour Beatty with fabrication by Cleveland Bridge and Engineering company.
      • The arches are made of steel with the main arch weighing 300 tonnes and on the pile cap (beneath water line) are four 3 metre cylindrical concrete legs where the four grey steel legs are bolted and welded onto just visible above the water.
      • Riprap covers the river bed to prevent against scouring
      • It was initially designed to be 272 metres long with a 38-metre-long northern approach and a 54-metre-long southern approach but the northern approach was simplified and shortened later but the south side stayed the same with a staircase connecting the pavement to the bridge.
      • The hangers are made of 30 mm diameter high strength locked coil steel cable
      • There are four exposed, high strength post tensioned locked coil steel tie cables that run alongside the deck and tie the bases of the arches together. The tie cables are 90 mm diameter on the large arch and 65 mm on the smaller.
      • The aggregate concrete deck sections are 7.5 m longand down to 125 mm thick in places, making it one of the thinnest bridge walking surfaces.
      • The handrails and parapet are stainless steel while the balustrade is made from stainless steel wire.
      • The underside of the deck is fitted with 7 tuned mass dampers (1 on small, 6 on large) to control oscillations to prevent wobbling effect like London Millennium Bridge.
      • At the start of construction, a temporary jetty was built on the south bank for safe construction of the central pier. In April 2008, the supporting legs were added to the central pier and the first steel arch was put in place in June 2008 and the final section of the main arch came in four pieces which were welded together on site and on 5 September 2008 all 170 tonnes of it was lifted into place by a 1,500-tonne mobile crane.
      • The concrete deck panels were cast on site and then using a short temporary jetty on the north bank they were floated out on a small barge and jacked into position.

       

       

      Reflective Diary

      Day 1

      • Today I worked with Tom, Toby and Hazel and as well as this I met Marcia, who gave me the briefing of the building and fire exits etc.
      • Firstly, I started the day drawing some designs of bridges that could potentially span across the Battersea Power Plant Site and found out that some of my drawings were better than expected as my drawing skills are usually quite poor.
      • Then I moved on to researching the site for the new footbridge and researched other bridges including the London Millennium Bridge, the Gateshead Millennium Bridge and the Infinity Bridge designed by Expedition engineering.
      • Today, I learnt about the different types of bridges, as well as many structural things such as having a support for every node in the truss shape and that the truss is the strongest shape to have. Also, if you have the continual arches like one of my first designs it puts too much pressure on the lower ones so separate them into 2 or 3 arches instead.
      • Learning and doing all of this made me feel much more confident as I now feel like my drawing skills aren’t as bad as I initially thought and I now know much more about the bridges and how to support and construct them as best as possible so I feel much more confident now.
      • Tomorrow I would like to learn how the different bridges are put together- the construction sequence of the bridges to see how the people build them and learn about the different stages that people go through on the design to see how you get to the final design of the bridge.
      • I could improve by being more concise to save time and research a bit more into construction when I get home to give me more knowledge on it for later in the week.
      • Perhaps I could have been more confident at the start and gone into more depth with the research by researching the lead designers and chief engineers etc. to see what other projects they have done and I could have researched Expedition Engineering a bit more so that I was more prepared which has taught me to do this in future.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: July 3, 2017
Niall has had a good first day researching different types of bridges and also researching the Battersea power station site. His drawing skills are good and clearly communicate his designs, however for any future drawings he could add some notes to explain the key points. His research has been thorough and detailed and he has understood the bridges well. As he is only here for four days, and there are other activities planned for the week, site visit and design review, he needs to make sure that he keeps on top of the work. By the end of Tuesday it would be great if Niall has completed day 2 & 3 so that he does not run behind schedule.

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

Completed on word and emailed to Hazel.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: July 3, 2017
Grace has had a great start to her week with us here at Expedition. She attended a design team meeting for the Millbrook Park project which involved complex discussions regarding project program, technical issues and co-ordination. Grace coped with this meeting extremely well and was able to take away many key lessons such as the importance of collaboration and communication. Grace did some fantastic research on bridges and presented her work clearly and concisely. She was able to talk competently about the different bridges and I was particularly impressed with the information she found on the construction methods used. Tomorrow we will look in more detail at the typical structural forms that bridges can take as this will help inform her design choices later in the week.

Day 2- Desk Study and Choosing Alignment

2 of the "Day 2- Desk Study and Choosing Alignment" Student Studio Workbook

10.0.50.28jobs498 Hazel SecondmentWork ExperienceNiall

See word document for all the images and the desk study maps- link above

Day 2

Planning Time

  • Planning time- 15 minutes
  • Desk Study- 90 minutes
  • Choosing an alignment- 30 minutes
  • Stakeholder meeting- 20 minutes
  • Reflective diary- 15 minutes
  • Design meeting- 120 minutes
  • Sketching- 45 minutes
  • Talk with supervisor- 15 minutes
  • Choosing design- 30 minutes
  • Reflective diary- 15 minutes
  • Lunch- 45 minutes
  • Desk Study
  • Working PierTunnels under the ThamesMain navigation ChannelIntertidal Foreshore- valuable to the Environment AgencyThames Water- London Ring MainThames Water- Battersea to Pimlico TunnelThere is also a flood defence wall 5.41 metres above sea level but due to climate change and sea level rise this could increase later to 6.41 metres so the bridge must not obstruct this flood defence.
    • Average walking speed of a pedestrian is 5km/h or 3.1mph
    • Distance from Pimlico Station to Battersea Power station is 1.3 miles which takes 26 minutes
    • Option 1 is 0.7 miles taking 13 minutes
    • Option 2 is 0.7 miles taking 13 minutes
    • Option 3 is 0.6 miles taking 11 minutes
    • Distance from Sloane Square Station to Battersea Power Station is 1.8 miles which takes 35 minutes
    • Option 1 is 0.7 miles taking 14 minutes
    • Option 2 is 0.9 miles taking 17 minutes
    • Option 3 is 1 mile taking 20 minutes
    • Distance from Victoria Station to Battersea Power Station is 2 miles which takes 39 minutes
    • Victoria to option 1 is 0.8 miles taking 16 minutes
    • Option 2 is 0.9 miles taking 17 minutes
    • Option 3 is 1 mile taking 19 minutes
    • There are docking stations for Santander Cycles near to all the optional sites for the bridge but for option 1 the docking station is across the train tracks as the bridge would be to the east of the existing railway lines and the docking station is west.
    • The bridge must have at least 9.91m clearance for ships below and the diagram shows the preferred location of the pier.
    • The Power Station is a distinctive and iconic piece of 1930s art deco design and as well as this the Chelsea (below) and Albert Bridges nearby pre-date the power station so also fit in with this design and are distinctive landmarks in the area so therefore, the footbridge will need to match this theme to get planning permission. The residential buildings on the north bank are part of the residential conservation area.
      Option Advantages Disadvantages
      Option 1 v (Option 1) Will not disrupt views of the power station.

      v  Cheaper as it requires less material as it can get most of its strength from the existing structure of the railway bridge.

      v  (Option 1) Major disruption caused to a key railway line into Victoria station which hosts 234,000 people per day.

      v  Would not be a very pleasant walk next to train tracks and passing trains due to loud noises and potentially the most dangerous.

      v  Doesn’t have direct access into the grounds of the site unlike the other two options.

      v  The Santander Cycles docking station is on the other side of the railway tracks making it more inconvenient.

      Option 2 v (Option 2) The shortest option potentially making it the cheapest.

      v  You could do a terminating vista to frame the power station as the exit on the south side is directly in front of the power station but the minimum height must be 9.91 metres making this idea more difficult.

      v  Very close to a Santander Cycles docking station

      v  (Option 2) Very thin pavement on the north bank (see below) causing a problem for pedestrian access and exit onto the pavement on the north side.

      v  If the bridge is too big then it will block views of the power station as the exit on the south side is directly in front of the power station.

      v  Goes over the working pier damaging views from the pier.

      Option 3 v  (Option 3)Wider pavement on the north bank (see below) ensuring easier access and exit from the bridge.

      v  Easier access for people from Pimlico station than the other options.

      v  Uses up more of the pavement outside the power station on the south side meaning fewer supports needed in the river to ensure it doesn’t block or hinder the obstacles.

      v  It will not affect any of the identified obstacles as it avoids the pier and can avoid the navigation channel etc.

      v  Very close to a Santander Cycles docking station (seen on pavement below).

      v  (Option 3) As the bridge is diagonal it is the longest potentially making it the most expensive depending on the materials needed for the bridge to be built.

      v  You could also argue as it takes up more of the pavement on the south side outside the power station it removes space for people to sit down and walk around.

       

      Ranking

      Best:                           Option 3

      Option 2

      Worst:                        Option 1

      I have chosen option 3 for my bridge alignment.

    • Pavement for option 2- north bank
    • Pavement for option 3- north bank
    • Pavement for option 3 again- north side
    • Overview map from day 1
    • Option 2 goes over the working pier.
    • Day 2
    •  
      • Reflective Diary
      • Today, I started with time planning to set out my day and how long each step would take. I found that I never really gave myself too much time, it was only too little. For example, I would say that a task would take me 30 minutes but it would end up taking 45 minutes so I have learnt now to allow myself more time in the plan for any extra bits that I may have to do.
      • Then I moved on to doing my desk study and choosing my alignment option for where I want the bridge to be.
      • In this stage I feel that my presentation for my desk study and my alignment choice went well and I think that it was clear and easy to understand but next time when I plan I will give myself more time and use plan and cross-sectional views to draw potential paths next time I plan something like this bridge again.
      • Today, I have learnt that civil engineers always have different options for bridge paths and then even different options for what the bridge can look like- it doesn’t just have to be a straight line and you could curve the path for easier access.
      • I also learnt how many factors are considered when deciding on the correct path including the local train stations and docking stations for Santander Cycles.
      • Tomorrow, I am going on a site visit and I hope I learn more about how the projects are constructed from the design.
      • Today I worked by myself on the project mainly but I spoke to Tom about my choice for the bridge alignment and what possible designs it could have.
      • Today has just once again boosted my confidence as I know much more about how engineers choose where to place the bridge and it has increased my interest in engineering as I can see how the initial site is broken down to choose the best possible location for the bridge.

       

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: July 4, 2017
Niall has worked well today, mainly on his own, and has produced some very good quality documentation summarising the various routes and alignment choices. His presentation of alignment choice was good, and there was good reasoning behind his decisions. I encouraged him to think outside of the box, looking away from the typical bridge schemes. Next step is to sketch through as many concepts as possible. These do not have to be neat at this stage, and should be discussed regularly to make sure the right approach is being taken.

Choosing a Route

2 of the "Choosing a Route" Student Studio Workbook

I have completed this section on word and have emailed it to Hazel with a copy of today’s reflective diary.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: July 5, 2017
Grace worked really well today and has shown that she can work independently and can assess and evaluate information to make decisions. Grace started the day by completing a mini study on the different types of bridges. She completed this task well and was able to define the key differences between the different types of bridge as well as identify the key advantages and disadvantages of each. This research will help her later in the week when she comes to designing her own bridge. Grace then completed a desk study on the area surrounding the new bridge. She looked at historical maps as well as current maps and photos to give her an insight into the area and to understand how her bridge will fit in with landscape and what obstructions and constraints the site has. She also used the British Geological Survey borehole maps and logs to get an understanding of the ground conditions. This task was fairly challenging as the boreholes at the site dated from approx. 1920. Grace rose to the challenge and has created her own sections through the ground showing clearly the different soil layers. This will be very useful later in the week when we look at foundations. Grace collated all the data and then assessed the viability of each of the proposed bridge locations. By creating a list of advantages and disadvantages Grace could easily evaluate each option and was able to conclude that she wanted to take forward Option 3. She presented her reasons for choosing Option 3 well and was able to demonstrate a good understanding of the factors that influenced her decision.

Day 3- Developing my design

3 of the "Day 3- Developing my design" Student Studio Workbook

See word document linked below

\\10.0.50.28\jobs\498 Hazel Secondment\Work Experience\Niall\

Day 3

Initial Concept Development

How will users access your bridge?

Users will access the bridge with ramps. There will be ramps on both banks to allow both cyclists and pedestrians to cross the bridge. The ramps will start a bit further back from the river side. On the south side, next to Battersea Power Station, the ramp will begin behind the building joined on to the pathway behind. You can see the proposed area above circled. The users will go up the ramp on one bank, walk across the bridge and then come down the ramp on the other side.

How will your bridge be attached to the banks? Is there enough room?

I think that there is enough room on the banks. On the north side, you can potentially continue the ramp down the pavement of Grosvenor Road if necessary and on the south bank you can continue it down the path to the side of the power station. The location for the ramp is circled above and I have chosen this location as I don’t want to remove the green area or decking. Therefore, I do think there is enough room for the ramps on the banks.

The bridge will be attached to the banks by the ramps which will be on their own span. So, the ramp will be attached to the floor and have one thin support pole and then just before the river there will be a large support attached to the mainland.

How will the bridge be supported? Can you imagine how the weight of the bridge and the users are transferred to the supports?

The bridge will be supported initially by the supporting poles under the ramps and then the first major support will still be on mainland just before the river. There are then 3 spans across the river meaning there are two support piers in the river Thames itself either side of the main navigation channel to support the bridge and its users at the middle and then the last major support will be on the other bank like the first major support followed by a supporting pole for the ramp.

This means in total there are 5 spans with 3 across the river. Imagine you are walking from the south bank to the north bank: Firstly, the weight of the user and bridge will be transferred to the supporting pole under the ramp and the ground. Next when you reach the top of the ramp you are supported by the major support on the mainland just before the river. Then as you walk across the weight is transferred to the first major support on the mainland and the closest pier support. The next stage is right in the middle where the weight is transferred to both the two pier supports in the Thames. The penultimate stage is then walking to the end of the bridge where the weight is transferred to the closest pier support that you just passed as well as the closest major support on the mainland (the same as the first major support on the other bank). Then the final stage is walking down the ramp on the north bank where the weight is transferred to the supporting pole below the ramp and the ground.

From what materials will the bridge be made?

The bridge arches (triple arch design) will be made from steel and the pier supports and support poles will be made from concrete and reinforced concrete for strength with perhaps an aluminium, concrete or steel deck.  There will also be locked steel cables running down from the arches to the deck. The bridge will need to be painted in such a way that it complements the design in décor of the area to match with the power station and the Chelsea Bridge and Albert Bridge nearby. Like these bridges nearby LEDs could be installed in the arches to light the bridge up at night along the arches and along the base of the deck as well.

Chosen Design

Does the design block the navigation channel?

No, there will be pier supports in the river either side of the navigation channel and the bridge will avoid the obstacles in the river including the piers and the tunnels under the river as well as the intertidal foreshore and the main navigation channel.

 

Does your bridge meet the minimum clearance requirement?

Yes, the ramps can go high enough so the bridge will reach the minimum clearance requirement of 9.91 metres

How much space is required for the access ramps?

On the south bank- of the 263.8 metres available only 182.5 metres will be needed for the access ramp.

On the north bank- of the 333.3 metres available only 187.5 metres will be needed for the access ramp.

The bridge itself will be 312.5 metres with an arch span of 104.1 metres.

Bridge Start below

Day 3

  • Today, I started with sketching out some possible designs for the bridge and decided that it would be curved. I then had to choose between having 3 arches or having a suspension bridge design and I decided on the 3 arches as I thought they would fit in well with the naturally curving bridge.
  • Then I answered the questions on student studio about how people will access the bridge and I decided the placement of the ramps and supports.
  • Then I had the mini design team meeting with Tom where we discussed my ideas for the design of the bridge and it went well and he gave me a few tips such as having the pier supports under the point where two arches meet and to connect the arches to the deck to transfer the strain to the deck away from the arch.
  • Finally, I developed my chosen design ensuring that it cleared the minimum clearance requirement, didn’t block the navigation channel and I had to make sure that there was enough room for the access ramps.
  • I did this by drawing my bridge neatly to scale.
  • I am happy that I am learning all these helpful tips for construction- i.e. to have the supports under the points where the arches meet as it is making me more knowledgeable and confident in what I am doing.
  • Tomorrow I want to learn about some of the construction sequences of bridges to understand how they are actually built.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: July 5, 2017
Niall has been thorough in working out the positioning of the bridge and has produced some good sketches showing this. His understanding of how the arch will work is good, and he is trying to make it work with a tie at the base to keep purely vertical forces on to the foundations. The approaches to the bridge are an important factor, and it is good to see that Niall has thought through the distances available.

Initial Concept

3 of the "Initial Concept" Student Studio Workbook

I drew all the designs on paper, scanned them in and put them in the word document. I have sent Hazel the word document and my reflective diary.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: July 6, 2017
Grace sketched lots of initial bridge designs and I was pleased to see that she had focused on the brief and had incorporated themes from Battersea Power station. It was great that Grace completed such a wide variety of designs and used many of the different bridge types that she had researched earlier in the week. We discussed a few of the designs before choosing two to take through to the next stage, where scale drawings were required. Grace understood the concept of scale well and I was pleased that she soon realised that she would need multiple supports in the river to keep the height of the bridge to an acceptable level. As we attended a site visit in the afternoon Grace had very little time to complete the allocated work. She did a great job and produced a great final design! Hopefully Grace enjoyed visiting the Selfridges site and was able to see another side of engineering. When creating designs in an office it is often easy to forget that they need to be built. Grace should now have a better appreciation of the complexities involved in construction and some of the challenges that can occur onsite.

Construction of the bridge

4 of the "Construction of the bridge" Student Studio Workbook

 

Day 4

How will the construction materials be brought to the site?

The construction materials can be delivered to the site by truck, train or ferry and then the parts of the bridge will be pre-built on the banks of the river in one of the two car parks just behind the Battersea Power Station (seen circled below) and then when the parts have been built they can be floated to the location of the bridge down the river and put into place.

How will the foundations be built- especially any built in the river?

As most of the soil under London is clay which is not hard, pile foundations will be used to access the soil underneath that is suitable for the foundations. The pile foundations will be made of reinforced concrete and will be finished off with the pile cap. They will be driven deep into the ground on either bank and then using a floating barge you can drive the foundations deep into the river bed too.

How will you minimize disruption in the area?

The disruption in the area will be minimized by closing off the car park where the bridge will be built and other routes to the power station will be provided to allow people to still get into the site easily. On the other bank, the stretch of pavement will be closed off and we will build that ramp first so that the pavement can be reopened quickly and we can just put a fence before it to stop people getting on until the whole bridge is built. The pedestrians can use the other side of pavement and a footpath can go onto the road slightly too. The pile foundations will be built in the river either side of the main navigation channel to minimize disruption and the deck and arches will be put on either side first and then at a convenient time to boats the middle section will be put on. Noise will be kept to a minimum too.

Will your bridge be stable during its construction or will it need additional support?

The bridge will be stable but the deck and arches over the river will need to be held in place by a floating crane whilst it is being welded down.

 

Construction sequence

  • Firstly, the pile foundations will be built on either bank as well as the support poles.
  • Then the ramps will be welded down onto those foundations and support poles.
  • Then the three sections of the deck will be built in the car park with the arches already attached to the deck with the LEDs in.
  • Next the pile foundations will be built in the river.
  • Then the third of the deck closest to the southern bank will then be held in place by a floating crane and welded into place with the arches pre-built onto the deck.
  • Then the same process will be done with the third closest to the northern bank.

Finally, the same process will be done with the middle section of the bridge.

Reflective Diary

 

Day 4

  • Today, I worked by myself with Tom again. I started by drawing my bridge to scale to get the measurements of the bridge and I located the car park behind the power station as a place where the parts of the bridge can be built.
  • I then moved on to answering the questions on the construction of the bridge such as how will disruption be minimized and how will the foundations be built.
  • I then sketched out a plan view of the bridge to show what it looks like from above.
  • I learnt about pile foundations and that the arches should be attached to the deck to release the strain off them as they want to push outwards. I also learnt to draw scale drawings to get accurate measurements of the bridge.
  • Yesterday, I also went on a site visit with Charlie, Tom and Hazel to Selfridges on Oxford Street to see the construction site and learn what they are doing and how they are doing it.
  • Tomorrow I want to learn how design teams decide on a final design for a project.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: July 6, 2017
Niall has coped well under time pressures today, as there has been a lot of disruption to the work he has been doing. The final design and methodology are of a good quality and it is clear that he has thought about the sequencing of the bridge in depth. Unfortunately there has been no time to do the calculations side of the project, however the proportions of the bridge have been drawn based on precedent so that it is likely that it will stand up. Niall should think about what questions will be asked for the presentation, for exampe: how is thermal expansion being addressed? What are the base connections from the bridge to the piers? How is the bridge being designed to prevent vibrations from footfall? We can discuss these before the presentation.

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

I have sent Hazel all my work from today and my updated diary.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: July 7, 2017
Grace managed to fit a lot of different activities into the day. She started off completing some calculations to work out the weight of the bridge and also looked at options for the foundations. Grace completed her calculations well and they were presented in a clear and logical fashion. This is an important skill to have as an engineer as all our calculations must be checked. Grace created a detailed construction sequence and it is clear that she has researched many different construction techniques, such as the use of cofferdams and piling. She has looked carefully at the construction methods used to build cable stayed bridges and the sequence she has proposed is very plausible. In the afternoon Grace conducted mini interviews with members of staff around the office who work in different fields of engineering; including civil and environmental engineering as well as building science. Grace was enthusiastic and asked lots of interesting and insightful questions which allowed her to gain a wider understanding of engineering.

The Presentation

5 of the "The Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

The PowerPoint presentation is linked below:

\10.0.50.28jobs498 Hazel SecondmentWork ExperienceNiall

Reflective Diary

Day 5

  • Today, I started with just finishing off my bridge designs and sketches as well as the final scale drawing so that I could use that for more in depth analysis and make the sketches neater to use in my presentation.
  • Using this final scale drawing I could photocopy it and then use Tipex to remove some of the drawing to show my construction sequence clearly on the presentation.
  • Then I prepared my PowerPoint presentation for most of the day by using notes and images that I made earlier in the week
  • And then I gave my presentation of the bridge design and answered the questions that people had.
  • The people in my meeting were: Tom, Charlie, Alex, Hazel and Grace.
  • I feel that my presentation went quite well; I managed to convey my ideas clearly with my PowerPoint and I used hand gestures to emphasise.
  • However, I do think I might have spoken a bit quickly and rushed it because I was a bit nervous but I can now use that to improve and so next time I give a presentation I will know not to be nervous and to be calm and talk slowly and to have more confidence in myself that I do know what I am presenting.
  • The best bits were the construction sequence sketch build up and the use of google earth to clearly show what my idea was and to show how the bridge would work with all the obstacles and with the space on the banks.
  • Then I finished off the day by going to the design team meeting review on the HS2 Euston Station project which gave me an insight into how they go through ideas and discuss the project and taught me about the engineering project and how it works.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Thomas Hutchinson on: July 6, 2017
Niall's presentation was very good quality and was received well by the audience. It was evident that he was a bit nervous at times and occasionally rushed through the slides, however it was clear that he was enthusiastic about the project and responded to the questions well at the end. Overall Niall has had a very good week producing great quality work. I am impressed with the detail of the diagrams and the text which supports it. I wish him all the best for the future and hopes that he pursues a career in engineering!

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

The Site – Nine Elms:

There are 3 possible alignments for the footbridge:

  • Option 1 – Attach the new footbridge to the side of the existing railway bridge.

Pros – Views of the power station are not disrupted, less materials are required due to the strength provided by the existing structure.

Cons – Disruption to the railway line caused by construction

  • Option 2 – Shortest route between the north and south side.

Pros – Shortest route would lower material costs and construction time.

Cons – On the north side the pavement is very thin which provides little room to access  the  bridge therefore causing pedestrian traffic. Also, the alignment would not be very convenient for pedestrians accessing the power station site from Pimlico Station.

  • Option 3 – Diagonal alignment.

Pros – Convenient for pedestrians accessing the site from Pimlico Station, more space to access the bridge where it lands on the north bank.

Cons – Longest alignment which will make it the most expensive option.

Research into existing footbridges:

Millennium Bridge:

  •  A steel suspension bridge that allows pedestrians to cross the River Thames, linking Bankside with the City of London.
  • It is located between Southwark Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge.

What is its total length? – 325 metres (1,066 feet), longest span = 144 metres (472 feet)

Why is the bridge shaped the way it is? – Two Y-shaped armatures support eight cables that run along the sides of the 4-metre-wide deck, while steel transverse arms clamp on to the cables at 8-metre intervals to support the deck itself. This means that the cables never rise more than 2.3 metres above the deck, allowing those crossing the bridge to enjoy uninterrupted panoramic views

What material is the structure built from, and why? – The bridge is mostly made of steel for its robustness and strength.

When was the bridge built? – Opened on the 10th June 2000, reopened in 2002.

Who was the chief engineer? – The design was by Arup Group and it was constructed by Monsberg & Thorsen, and Sir Robert McAlpine

How was the bridge built? – The bridge uses ‘lateral suspension’ which means that it doesn’t require tall columns. Instead, two armatures shaped as Y’s support eight long cables that run along the deck, while steel arms clamp on the cables to support the deck.

Gateshead Millennium Bridge:

A pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead’s Quays on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle Upon Tyne on the north bank.

What is its total length? – 126 metres (413 feet), longest span = 105 metres (344 feet)

Why is the bridge shaped the way it is? – The curved architecture resembles a blinking/winking eye.

What material is the structure built from and why? – Steel due to the hardwearing and strength factors of it.

When was the bridge built? – Construction started in 1998 and it officially opened on the 7th May 2002.

Who was the chief engineer? – Volker Stevin (VolkerWessels)

How was the bridge built? – Six 45 cm (18 inches) diameter hydraulic rams (3 on each side, each powered by an electric motor) rotate the bridge back on large bearings to allow small ships and boats (up to 25 m (82 feet) tall) to pass underneath. The bridge takes as little as 4.5 minutes to rotate through the full 40° from closed to open, depending on wind speed.

Footbridge Inspiration:

La Rosa, La Coruna, Spain
Nine Elms to Pimlico’s
Infinity Footbridge, Stockton
Gateshead Millennium Bridge, Newcastle

Other types of bridge structure:

Beam Bridge

A beam bridge is the simplest type of bridge. A beam bridge has to be stiff and able to resist twisting and bending under load. In its most basic form, a beam bridge is formed of a horizontal beam that is supported at each end by piers. Under load, the beam’s top surface is pushed down or compressed while the bottom edge is placed under tension.

An example of a beam bridge is Fullers Bridge in Australia.

Truss Bridge

A truss bridge is a bridge that is composed of a truss, a structure of connected triangular units. The truss can be stressed from tension and compression in response to dynamic loads. An example of a truss bridge is the Royal Albert Bridge in England.

Arch Bridge

Arch bridges are one of the oldest types of bridges and are famous for their great natural strength. They were originally built from stone or brick but are nowadays built from reinforced concrete or steel. Because of this, arch bridges were allowed to be longer with lower spans.

Instead of pushing straight down, the load of an arch bridge is carried outward along the curve of the arch to the supports at each end. The weight is transferred to the supports at either end. These supports, called the abutments, carry the load and keep the ends of the bridge from spreading out.

The load at the top of the key stone makes each stone on the arch of the bridge press on the one next to it. This happens until the push is applied to the end supports or abutments, which are embedded into the ground.

The ground around the abutments is forced together and pushes back on the abutments.

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The ground which pushes back on the abutments creates a resistance which is passed from stone to stone, until it is eventually pushing on the key stone which is supporting the load. This creates an equilibrium.

Cantilever Bridge:

A cantilever bridge is a bridge using cantilevers, structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end. For small footbridges, the cantilevers may be simple beams.

Forth Bridge

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Mikolaj Pawelczak on: July 18, 2017
Well done on the research. I think you presented a lot of information, good job with including many pictures. I could tell you like the cable stayed footbridges but I am happy you did some research on the basic structures like beams and arches as well. They will give you a good understanding of the basics.

Choosing a Route

2 of the "Choosing a Route" Student Studio Workbook

Desk Study:

Who Does the Proposed Bridge Serve?

Overview of Nine Elms

The bridge should provide easy access for pedestrians commuting around London to cross from one side of the River Thames to the other. Specifically, this bridge should improve pedestrian access to the Battersea Power Station site. Also, the bridge should allow for cyclists to easily access the bridge in order to promote cycling around London for a healthier environment.

As shown by the image above, there are 3 stations situated within the perimeter. These stations include: Victoria, Pimlico, and Sloane Square.

Pimlico Station – Route 3 would be the most convenient option for commuters going through Pimlico Station due to the short distance. To access either of the bridges from Pimlico Station, commuters can use the Thames Path. However, there is currently another bridge (Vauxhall Bridge) near Pimlico Station, so another bridge near Pimlico Station isn’t 100% necessary.

Walking Times:

Route 1 – 13 minutes

Route 2 – 13 minutes

Route 3 – 10 minutes

Pimlico Station

Victoria Station – Victoria Station is the furthest away from either of the 3 possible alignments which means that commuters will have to walk a longer distance. I believe that the most convenient route for people commuting from Victoria would be route 1. This is because the footbridge would be attached to the existing Victoria railway bridge.

Walking Times:

Route 1 – 16 minutes

Route 2 – 17 minutes

Route 3 – 19 minutes

Victoria Station

Sloane Square – I believe that route 3 would not be convenient for people commuting from Sloane Square as it is the furthest away and would take a relatively long time to travel. However, route 1 is the closest to Sloane Square, with route 2 also being relatively close.

Walking Times:

Route 1 – 14 minutes

Route 2 – 17 minutes

Route 3 – 20 minutes

Sloane Square

What Obstacles Must The Bridge Avoid?

Map of Potential Obstacles

The potential obstacles include:

  • Working piers on the river front – must NOT be disturbed
  • Underground tunnels for services
  • The intertidal foreshore
  • The main navigation channel of the river – boats and cargo etc.

The cross section of the river shows that the navigation channel needs a proposed clearance of 9.91 metres ODN.

The Urban Environment:

In order to be successful, the bridge has to blend in well with the surrounding urban environment and not stick out like a sore thumb. However, it should maintain a art deco style and aesthetically pleasing appearance. In regards to the urban environment, the Battersea Power Station has a distinctive 1930’s art deco design. The design of the footbridge must maintain and compliment the appearance of the power station in order to meet planning permission.

Battersea Power Station undergoing redevelopment

As well as this, there are two nearby bridges, Chelsea and Albert bridges which pre date the power station and are also distinctive local landmarks.

Chelsea Bridge
Albert Bridge

Choosing an Alignment:

There are 3 possible alignment routes for the footbridge:

Alignment Routes

Alignment 1:

Option 1 is to attach the new footbridge to the side of the existing railway bridge (Grosvenor bridge).

Pros – Views of the power station are not disrupted, less materials are required due to the strength provided by the existing structure. You could use the existing piers to add the supports for the footbridge.

Cross section of proposed idea

Cons – Disruption to the railway line caused by construction

Adding a footbridge to the side of Grosvenor bridge

Alignment 2:

Option 2 is the shortest route between the north and south.

Pros – Shortest route would lower material costs and construction time.

Cons – On the north side the pavement is very thin which provides little room to access  the  bridge therefore causing pedestrian traffic. Also, the alignment would not be very convenient for pedestrians accessing the power station site from Pimlico Station.

Access could be improved by adding a pedestrian crossing and traffic lights
Elevation
Alignment 2 Possibility

Alignment 3:

Option 3 is a diagonal alignment and is the longest route out of the three.

Pros – Convenient for pedestrians accessing the site from Pimlico Station, more space to access the bridge where it lands on the north bank.

Cons – Longest alignment which will make it the most expensive option.

Alignment 3 Possibility

Choosing an Alignment – Conclusion:

In conclusion I believe that alignment 2 is the best choice for the footbridge, and therefore this is the route I will be taking.

This is mostly because it is one of the shortest distances out of the 3 possibilities which would likely save material costs and would possibly shorten the construction time.

It also is the median distance between the three nearby train stations which should satisfy the majority of pedestrians.

One issue that will need to be solved is the pavement on the north side. This could be resolved by adding a crossing with traffic lights on the north side road to allow pedestrian and vehicle traffic to pass through.

I decided not to choose route 1 based on the fact that the construction would interrupt the train services in Victoria, one of the busiest stations in London. Considering how busy Victoria station gets during peak hours, constructing a bridge on the side of Grosvenor bridge would only make it more busy.

I decided not to choose alignment 3 due to it having the longest distance. Because of this, it would likely cost the most to construct and also take the longest time to build. In addition, because alignment 3 went in a diagonal direction I felt that this would face many different obstacles e.g. working piers and underground tunnels.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Mikolaj Pawelczak on: July 19, 2017
Very good and clear presentation of ideas, pros and cons. You clearly labelled each option and presented nicely with additional sketches and photos. I like the photo of the obstacle for your chosen route and the idea of how to solve it. You addressed all the points specified in the brief and are progressing well into the next stage. Great job with the pdf sketches.

Initial Concept

3 of the "Initial Concept" Student Studio Workbook

Initial Ideas:

Initial Ideas

Idea 1:

Idea 1 is a suspension bridge that features a very curved pathway that extends outwards. It is supported by two main steel pillars with suspension cables attaching to the walkway which help transfer the weight of the users. Pedestrians can easily access the bridge via the two ramps on either side of the Thames river. This is convenient for disabled people that require wheelchair access.

However, because the two pillars would have to be attached by the streets, this may not be possible or efficient as the road on the north side is very tight and has traffic running through it.

In regards to materials, the main structure would be made entirely from steel.

Pros:

  • Easy access for wheelchair users
  • Looks aesthetically pleasing
  • No obstruction caused to the river flow

Cons:

  • Pillars would be difficult to construct on the north side due to it being a small road with not much room
  • Not enough support due to the long span of the Thames
  • Curved design means that the distance to travel is longer than necessary
  • No bicycle access

Idea 2:

Idea 2 is another suspension bridge that features two or three main pillars and three separate pathways attached via cables, beams, and rakers. The main central pathway is for pedestrians that are walking across the bridge. The pillars feature an archway that allows users to walk through with ease.

In addition to this, the main distinctive feature of this footbridge design is that it has two cycling pathways on either side of the main walkway platform. Because of this, a two way cycling system is created, therefore avoiding any cycling accidents.

Users will access the bridge via the walkway/cycle ways attached to the river banks.

The bridge will be supported by the main suspension cables attached to the pillars and walkways. Further support is provided by steel beams inserting through the cycle platforms and the main central platform. Also, rakers could be used.

In terms of materials, the main pillars and piers will be made from concrete, and the bridge platforms will be made from steel.

Pros:

  • Two separate pathways for cycling to avoid accidents
  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Plenty of clearance for boats and cargo to pass through

Cons:

  • Very expensive
  • Not much support on the inner parts of the cycle platforms

Idea 3:

Idea 3 is a suspension bridge inspired by 1930’s art deco – similarly to the nearby Battersea Power Station. It’s main distinctive features are the two pillars which are supposed to replicate old fashioned industrial chimneys. Because of this, the bridge maintains a distinct 1930’s art deco aesthetic. The footbridge features two separate pathways, one for cyclists and one for people walking.

The users will access the bridge simply by accessing the platform attached to the banks.

Suspension cables and rakers would be used to keep the bridge stable and secure.

For the materials, concrete would be used for the pillars, and steel is used for the platform walkway.

Pros:

  • The design maintains a distinctive 1930’s art deco appeal to compliment the nearby Battersea Power Station
  • Two separate sides for walking and cycling

Cons:

  • No two way cycling system
  • Cables obstruct the view for pedestrians

Idea 4:

Idea 4 is a relatively simple beam bridge design which features arches on the outside with a truss system for extra support. The use of the truss makes the design look relatively retro, therefore complimenting Battersea Power Station. Easy access is provided on either side by allowing users to enter the bridge via the road on the north side and the bank on the south side.

The bridge will be mostly made from steel and the piers will be made from concrete.

Pros:

  • The design suits the art deco theme
  • Truss system provides good support

Cons:

  • Rather boring design with not much aesthetic appeal
  • Steel and concrete piers will result in very expensive costs

Developed Idea

The idea that I will be taking forward to develop is idea 2. This is because I believe that it is the most suitable and provides better and more convenient access for cyclists and walking pedestrians.

Idea 2 Developed:

Cross Sections
Plan and Elevation

I produced drawings of the two cross sections – one when the cycling track is closer in, and one when the cycling track is further outwards. Also, I produced drawings of the plan and elevation view with some measurements included to show how much clearance there is etc.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Mikolaj Pawelczak on: July 20, 2017
Again, I really like the way you presented the ideas with sketches and clearly specified pros and cons. It is easy to read and understand. You also showed that you are aware of advantages and disadvantages of each solution and that there is never a perfect one. Good job with the sketches for the developed option. They look very professional. Also, please remember the constraints given in the brief - especially regarding to the position of the piers, as discussed during our meeting.

Calculations and Construction

4 of the "Calculations and Construction" Student Studio Workbook

Calculations:

How thick does the bridge need to be?

The deck will be 1 metre in depth.

What is the live load on the bridge?

Walkway – 5 people per m²

Cycle path – 1 person per m²

Walkway live load = 312,000kg

Cycle pathways live load = 49,400kg

Total live load = 361,400kg

How much does the bridge weigh?

Total weight of tower = 4,080,000kg

Total weight of decks = 733,122kg

Total weight of cables = 1,042,030kg

Total weight of bridge = 5,855,152kg

Live load + weight of bridge = 6,216,552kg

What weight must the supports take?

The central tower will take 75% of the weight which is 4,662,414kg

The two ends of the bridge which are anchored to the banks will take 12.5% each. So each end will take 777,069kg

Construction Sequence:

The Foundations and Tower:

Firstly, the foundations for the tower pillar are prepared by excavating the river bed until a sufficiently firm rock is reached. Once the foundations have been identified, the construction begins with lowering a caisson (a steel and concrete container that acts as dam to the ground beneath the water). The water is removed from the interior of the caisson which allows the construction workers to start excavating a foundation. When the excavation is fully complete, the concrete is poured into the caisson to form the pier. The tower is constructed by using a crane to lift the concrete sections of the tower and placing them on top of each other.

The Bridge Sections and Suspension Cables:

When the tower has been constructed, the walkway and cycle platforms can be added. The 20 metre sections of the bridge would be built from the tower on each side – to balance out the weight of the sections and the tower. After each 20 metre section is built out from the tower, the cables are attached onto the appropriate location on the tower, and then attached to the platform section to hold it up. The platform sections could be brought to the construction site on a barge and lifted by a crane attached to the tower. Also, temporary cables could be used and anchored to the end of the banks to support the bridge.

For the 20 metre sections of the bridge, the footway section would be lifted first with the cross beams attached. The cycle track sections would be transported on the completed footway sections and attached afterwards which would save weight to lift from the barge.

Finally, to complete the bridge, the safety fences, lights, services etc. would be added.

Cross section of platform
Cross beams and deck

Interview:

Fernando:

How long have you been a civil engineer?

10 years. 3 years in Spain.

What process did you go through to become a civil engineer?

Naturally good at maths and physics so went to study at university in Spain. He then got a PhD in England.

What do you like most and least about civil engineering?

Most – Requires creative thinking and scientific proof. He likes the combinations of different fields.

Least – He doesn’t like the fact that engineers are underappreciated by a lot of people and not very well recognised.

Favourite bridge?

The Great Belt Bridge in Denmark

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Mikolaj Pawelczak on: July 21, 2017
Very good description of the construction sequence. Clearly you put some thought/research into the cable stayed bridge construction. Your description is detailed and obviously very realistic. I also enjoyed reading the interview so good job on that. Hope it is useful for you. Looking at the sketches of cross section I can see the central deck to be trapezoidal, is it a last minute change? It certainly can be of different shape than rectangular but remember to update all calculations that can be affected by design changes. Good job on the calcs. Please keep your detailed calculation pages for future reference. Thanks

Organise and Present

5 of the "Organise and Present" Student Studio Workbook

Final Drawings of the Bridge:

Plan and Elevation
Cross Sections
Cross beams and deck
Cross section of platform

Presentation:

Presentation has been printed off separately.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Mikolaj Pawelczak on: July 21, 2017
I think it was a good presentation that showed the design process you went through. You clearly showed a process from the idea stage to more detailed development and calculations. It was very helpful that you brought your sketches with you. As a lessons learned from the presentation I would try using positive words and avoid negative one's i.e. "boring". As a presenter you are in charge of how people see you and what impression you give so it would be good to take the opportunity and only focus on the good things. Good job during whole week!

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

Suspension Bridge

The main forcestension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck. The weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, then to the ground. Suspension bridges have large main cables hung between the towers and are anchored at each end to the ground but this is difficult with poor ground conditions. The main cables, which are free to move on bearings in the towers, bear the load of the bridge deck. The cables are under tension from their own weight, along with the deck and the live load. The tension on the main cables is transferred to the ground at the anchorages and by downwards tug on the towers.

Advantage Disadvantage
o   Can be made out of simple materials such as wood and common wire rope.

o   Less material used – reduced construction cost

o   Little or no access from below is required during construction, for example allowing a waterway to remain open while the bridge is built above

o   Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds

o   Some access below may be required during construction, to lift the initial cables or to lift deck units. This access can often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction

 

Cable-Stayed Bridge

The towers/pylons are the primary load-bearing structures which transmit the bridge loads to the ground. A cantilever approach is often used to support the bridge deck near the towers, but lengths further from them are supported by cables running directly to the towers. This has the disadvantage that the cables pull to the sides as opposed to directly up with suspension bridges, requiring the bridge deck to be stronger to resist the resulting horizontal compression loads; but has the advantage of not requiring firm anchorages to resist the horizontal pull of the main cables of the suspension bridge. By design all static horizontal forces of the cable-stayed bridge are balanced so that the supporting towers do not tend to tilt or slide, needing only to resist horizontal forces from the live loads. It has much greater stiffness than the suspension bridge, so that deformations of the deck under live loads are reduced and can be constructed by cantilevering out from the tower – the cables act both as temporary and permanent supports to the bridge deck.

Tied-arch Bridge. The outward-directed horizontal forces of the arch are borne as tension by either tie-rods or the deck itself, rather than by the ground or the bridge foundations. Thrusts downward are translated, as tension, by vertical ties of the deck to the curved top, tending to flatten it and thereby to push its tips outward into the abutments. The elimination of horizontal forces at the abutments allows tied-arch bridges to be constructed with less robust foundations; like areas of unstable soil. In addition, since they do not depend on horizontal compression forces for their integrity, tied-arch bridges can be prefabricated offsite, and then floated or lifted into place.

 

 

Bridge London Millennium Footbridge

 

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge

 

Infinity Bridge
Why is the bridge the shape it is? Due to height restrictions, and to improve the view, the bridge’s suspension design had the supporting cables below the deck level, giving a very shallow profile There’s a pair of steel arches: A deck for the pedestrian and cycle path; Then the supporting deck that forms an ark over the river. The pedestrian deck is about a foot higher than the cycle way for clear views of the river and a higher safety guard to be used for cyclists The double bow form of the bridge is a logical response to the structural demands on it, form following function. It has five 5 tonne tuned mass dampers will make sure that it doesn’t wobble
Span? Main span: 144m. Side spans: north 81 m., south 108 m Longest – 105m 2 river spans and 8 minor spans on approaches, longest – 120m
Material of structure and why? Steel bridge, Aluminium deck and reinforced concrete body Steel and supported on cantilever transverse steel beams covered by a aluminium deck plate Weathering steel, stainless steel and reinforced concrete
When was it built? Opened June 2000 Opened 7 May 2002 10 June 2000
Built by? Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners Royal VolkerWessels Stevin N.V Balfour Beatty
How was it built? It has two river piers and is made of three main sections with a total structure length of 325m. The eight suspension cables are tensioned to pull against the piers set into each bank The bridge was lifted into place in one piece by the Asian Hercules II, one of the world’s largest floating cranes It has a pair of continuous, differently-sized structural steel arches with suspended precast concrete decking

 

 

 

London Millennium Footbridge

A steel suspension bridge for pedestrians. The Wobbly Bridge: Built using ‘lateral suspension’, an engineering innovation allowing suspension bridges to be built without tall supporting columns, the bridge was hit by a phenomenon called Synchronous Lateral Excitation when around 80,000 crossed the bridge on its opening day. They felt the bridge begin to sway and twist in regular oscillations then the more it happened, the more people responded to the movement; and the worse it got. The problem was fixed with two different types of damper: viscous dampers (like car shock absorbers); and tuned mass dampers: a large mass stiffened by springs, sometimes used in buildings in earthquake zones. The tuned mass dampers absorb vertical movement.

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge

Pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge (moveable bridge which rotates about fixed endpoints)

Total lenth – 126m and width – 8m.

Infinity Bridge

Public pedestrian and cycle footbridge, design – asymmetric double tied-arch and suspended deck, total length – 240m, width – 5m.

 

Example – Cables – Each of the two 1,500 m main cables was built up of 61 Nos. prefabricated strands, 55 Nos. of which had a diameter of 69 mm

 

 

Only 3m available between the road and the bank. Path will be in line with the road and then turn to cross the river.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Material Advantage Disadvantage
Concrete high compressive strength Low tensile strength
Steel eg. Pylons High tensile strength, can be painted Must be protected against corrosion (by applying a protective paint)
Asphalt (80 mm thick)
Aluminium Allows hollow shapes to be formed, don’t need protective paint. lightweight Cost
Glass fiber composite material lightweight Uv

 

In areas of tensile stresses, concrete is reinforced by steel bars embedded into it. Steel bars start functioning when concrete cracks as it can no longer resist further tensile stresses. The cracks remain harmless called “hair cracks”, if bars are designed and place correctly.

Maximum slope — 1:20  i.e., 5%

 

 

 

 Reflective Diary

07/08/2017

I was given my task for the week ahead; to design a footbridge. It feels very life like as it is a place being regenerated not far from here. I loved seeing the many unique and original bridges which have been constructed. Today Mikolaj Pawelczak kindly offered to help me with my task. He gave me a clearer insight to how bridges connect to the ground and the different layouts pylons can have, leading to the advantages and disadvantages of each. He explained any vocabulary which I didn’t understand during my research such as counterweight, which I now know is the weight which is needed to succeed in creating a moveable bridge. He also drew my attention to different problems; such as the road being so close to the bank and therefore the minimum space I have to design the access to the bridge and the connection to the bank. Mikolaj explained the different codes to follow in designing a pedestrian foot bridge including the slope of the ramp and the disable access needed. I feel there are numerous different areas to think about and account for which may be difficult for me to manage in the coming week, however with the many helpful engineers to turn to, along with the research I have done today, I will be able to stay on track. I am excited for the week ahead and for the freedom given to my imagination to design my very own footbridge.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre on: August 8, 2017
Megan has done an excellent work in researching different type of bridges (arch bridges, cable-stayed, suspension), and she has shown very good understanding of the differences and mechanics of each type. The research on the three examples: Millenium, Gateshead and Infinity, is also excellent. She has done an extensive investigation of materials and historical information, as well as advantages and disadvantages of each solution. In summary, the work done in Day 1 is excellent.

Battersea Area and Route

2 of the "Battersea Area and Route" Student Studio Workbook

Pedestrians will get to the station from various train stations, the closest being Victoria, Sloane Square and Pimlico Stations. Cyclists will access the bridge from the A3212 road.

There are many different obstacles, both above and under the river and along the banks. Including the A3212 road, the residential houses and the rail way. The number of obstacles will depend on which option I choose for my bridge.

 

The bridge must also comply with the clearance heights needed for the traffic from the working ports and the flood wall heights needed for safety, taking into account the future risen height that will be needed too.

 

 

Nearby structures

Power Station

Chelsea Bridge

Albert Bridge

Battersea Railway Bridge

Battersea Dogs & Cats Home

Battersea Park

Battersea Zoo

Peace Pagoda

 

Options

Option 1

Sloane Square Station – Power Station = 0.9 mile, 18 min

Victoria Station – Power Station = 1 mile, 19 min

Pimlico Station – Power Station = 0.8 mile, 16 min

Cross Bridge, 231m then to Power Station – 0.2 mile, 3 min

Option 2

Sloane Square Station – Power Station = 1.2 mile, 22min

Victoria Station – Power Station = 1.2 mile, 21min

Pimlico Station – Power Station = 1 mile, 17min

Cross Bridge, 321m then to Power Station – 0.3 mile, 4 min

Option 3

Sloane Square Station – Power Station = 1.4 mile, 28min

Victoria Station – Power Station = 1.1 mile, 23 min

Pimlico Station – Power Station = 0.7 mile, 15min

Cross Bridge, 470m then to Power Station – 0.3 mile, 6 min

 

Option Advantage Disadvantage
1 Won’t disrupt views of the power station due to being attached to the existing railway bridge.

It will require less materials as it can get most of its strength from the existing structure.

The construction will disrupt the railway line.

Difficult to compliment the design of the railway bridge.

2 The second option is the shortest.

It will easily fit on the south side.

Pavement is very thin and close to the road, therefore little room to access the bridge.

It is very close to the pier.

There are a lot of obstacles.

3 More space to access the bridge on the north bank.

Less obstacles.

Longest therefore most expensive.

Longest average time to walk to nearby stations.

 

I have chosen option 2 as it has the quickest average access to the Power Station from all nearby Stations. It is the shortest therefore reducing cost. It isn’t too close to the railway. Although it has many obstacles, it is a foot bridge which will be made with minimum disturbance to its surrounds. However with only 3m of pavement on the north side, access to the bridge will need to be carefully designed.

 

Reflective Diary

08/08/2017

With my planning I managed to get everything finished, however my tasks crossed paths a few times making it harder to follow. There was also a presentation on today about mastic asphalt which I wasn’t aware of and so I had to alter my plan to fit the presentation in. Today I learnt that there are always new things to learn due to the ever growing intelligence, allowing different machines and materials to be invented. This results in more and more things available to use, all with many different benefits and solutions to problems. Therefore you never stop learning and discovering whilst being a civil engineer. Tomorrow I hope to start sketching and designing my bridge, with the help of other engineers to guide me on what will or won’t work.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre on: August 9, 2017
Megan has done a very good work in comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the three available routes. She has chosen number 2 for very good reasons, and she has explained adequately. She is very well prepared to face Day 3 and to design a footbridge with the research she has done and the route she has chosen.

Choosing concepts

3 of the "Choosing concepts" Student Studio Workbook

With only 3m of pavement, access to the bridge will need to be carefully designed.

 

 

Using British Standard 5400, min. path width for pedestrians and cyclists with separate paths, I have chosen widths for pedestrians 3m and cyclists 2m, 5.6m width total. 0.3m on either side of deck for railings and cables.

 

Maximum ramp gradient 6% – calculations done

 

Railing height 1.2m

 

 

Surface Advantage Disadvantage
Mastic Asphalt Waterproof

Strong, and durable

Can be stained to provide colour

 

Significantly increase weight

Installed at high temperature increasing the load which will needed to be accounted for in the design

Wood Can help establish a structure in its location (historical or urban) Must be ventilated on all sides to avoid mould or rotting

Longitudinal planks may pose a danger to cyclists

May be slippy therefore need to be grooved and added with an epoxy-resin filling to increase friction

Wood changes colour over time

Maintenance

 

Thin Synthetic Coatings Surfaces can be made in almost all shades Layer of quartz sand needed for friction.

Light colour surfaces are easily dirtied

 

Glass Unique perspective

 

Must be easily replaced

Will need necessary non-slip properties

Many tests will need performed (impact tests)

 

Natural Stone Can help establish a structure in its location (historical or urban)

 

Not advisable for lighter structures

 

Synthetics Dyeing ability can open additional design possibilities

Flexible surface

Will need necessary non-slip properties

 

 

Part Material Reason
Bridge structure Steel Overall less weight than concrete
Pylon Concrete Works well with compression
Cables Coated Steel Good tensile strength
Foundation Concrete Good compression strength
Path Soil from excavation Cheap
Surface of bridge Thin Synthetic Coatings Any shade, more friction
Railings Stainless Steel Doesn’t corrode, shapes easily

 

 

 

Reflective Diary

 

09/08/2017

I started to develop designs using the option 2 route which I chose yesterday, trying out different ideas using alternative bridge structures. I then focused on 3 ideas, sketching each in more detail, of which I chose my final design with the help of Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre; who gave me advantages and disadvantages of each. This gave me a feel for the benefits of a design team meeting. Different ideas, problems and solutions can be brought about due to the differing perspectives and knowledge in a design team. With my chosen idea, I began to think about its dimensions, the access to the bridge and therefore the slope of the path, as well as the materials that I will use. Fernando guided me, giving me different solutions to problems, of which I picked the solution that I felt worked best. There are various areas that all have their own criteria whilst designing a bridge and must not be left out, an aspect of designing which I particularly enjoyed.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre on: August 10, 2017
Megan did an excellent work during Day 3. This is perhaps no reflected in the submission, but she developed detailed sketches and we had several discussions to decide the best solution. She also did a very good research on the different materials she could use for different materials, and she chose a good set of materials during the conceptual design. She is now in very good position to face the calculation phase, since the concept is very well defined.

Calculations and Construction Sequence

4 of the "Calculations and Construction Sequence" Student Studio Workbook

Reflective Diary

 

10/08/2017

With the help of Fernando, I calculated the weights, cost and safety of the bridge; a part I particularly enjoyed and it feels very gratifying once finished. With the use of codes and information on materials, it’s fascinating how much can be calculated on paper about a structure. Fernando showed me a construction sequence for a footbridge he had designed with a design team. I was in awe of how much detail can be seen with such minimal detail at the same time. I then drew my own construction sequence, another aspect which I found very enjoyable. I then availed of the opportunity to interview Mikolaj Pawelczak. Finding out his reasons for choosing engineering, his journey of becoming one and all the benefits, as well as some disadvantages that are in an engineering career. I definitely feel I am on the right career path and I am excited to see where it will take me in the future.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre on: August 10, 2017
Even though Megan's submission does not show much work today, she has been working on the calculations: sizing, weights and costs. She has done an excellent work, and has demonstrated a high level of understanding of engineering concepts. In addition, she has been working on the erection sequence of the footbridge, and has made some nice sketches, which she will use in the final presentation.

Presentation

5 of the "Presentation" Student Studio Workbook

Reflective Diary

 

11/08/2017

With my finished design and calculations, I created a power point, including the main points, information on the Battersea area and scanned sketches of the construction sequence and the bridge. I presented the PowerPoint to other engineers and summer students and I was able to answer their questions at the end; an ability I will certainly need in an engineering career. I feel I have learnt a lot and definitely improved upon my teamwork, presentation and problem solving skills. The Student Studio is a wonderful, interactive and engaging way of seeing the meaning of being a Civil Engineer. It has certainly cemented my choice of studying engineering at University. I look forward to what is ahead and I will use all of the knowledge that I have learnt from this experience in the future.

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Fernando Madrazo-Aguirre on: August 14, 2017
Megan finished successfully all the tasks she had to do on time. At the end, she presented a summary of the work developed during the week in front of other COWI colleagues. She did it with confident, and was able to respond to the questions with determination. I gave her some tips for future presentations, especially from the engineering perspective, e.g. what information she could have included, etc. Overall, I had a great impression of Megan, and I think she did an excellent work. She showed interest in the project, in the work I was developing and engineering in general. I hope we can see Megan again in the company in the future.

Footbridge Research

1 of the "Footbridge Research" Student Studio Workbook

London Millennium Bridge, London, UK

Image result for millennium bridge

(https://www.allinlondon.co.uk/the-millennium-bridge.php)

  • 325m long, 4m wide, built using concrete, steel, aluminium, locked coil cable and stainless steel (http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2000/millennium_bridge/default.stm,                                       http://thames.me.uk/s00080.htm)
  • Designed by Sir Norman Foster, Sir Anthony Caro and engineering company Arup (ibid)
  • Construction started by Monberg & Thorsen/Sir Robert McAlpine in 1999, finished in 2000 (http://thames.me.uk/s00080.htm)
  • Became known as the Wobbly Bridge after the bridge began to wobble and sway in regular oscillations, leading to it being shut down and redesigned. The problem came from a lack of suitable dampers (http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2000/millennium_bridge/happened.stm)
  • Bridge designed for ‘elegance’, as a suspension bridge, with lateral instead of vertical support to give it a ‘dramatic appearance’ (http://www.fosterandpartners.com/news/archive/2000/06/the-millennium-bridge-opens/)
  • Concrete and steel were used to build the Y-shaped piers supporting the bridge, with locked coil cables fixed to the piers and anchored at the riverbanks for suspension. Piers were built into the water, so concrete may have been used for water and corrosion resistance (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/civilengineering/bridges/Pages/NotableBridges/LondonMillennium.html
  • Aluminium used to build the deck (ibid)
  • Stainless steel used for handrails (ibid)

Infinity Bridge, Stockton-on-Tees, UK

Image result for infinity bridge

(http://expedition.uk.com/projects/infinity-bridge-stockton-on-tees/)

  • 180m long, 5m wide, 40m maximum height (http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/2503/pdfs/uksi_20062503_en.pdf, https://web.archive.org/web/20110718123442/http://www.wyg.com/media/pdf/case_studies/Teesside_Stockton_Footbridge.pdf)
  • Constructed from precast concrete, for the decking, and 450 tonnes of Corus steel for the arches (https://web.archive.org/web/20110718123442/http://www.wyg.com/media/pdf/case_studies/Teesside_Stockton_Footbridge.pdf,     http://expedition.uk.com/projects/infinity-bridge-stockton-on-tees/)
  • Designed by Expedition Engineering and Spence Associates (http://expedition.uk.com/projects/infinity-bridge-stockton-on-tees/)
  • Constructed between summer 2007 and December 2008. Construction was led by Balfour Beatty Regional Civil Engineering (https://www.realwire.com/release_detail.asp?ReleaseID=12383)
  • The bridge is a dual tied-arch, or double bowstring arch bridge, designed that way as it is ‘a logical response to the structural demands on it’, as well as being an aesthetically pleasing and unique, iconic landmark (http://expedition.uk.com/projects/infinity-bridge-stockton-on-tees/, http://www.bath.ac.uk/ace/uploads/StudentProjects/Bridgeconference2009/Papers/MASKELL.pdf)
  • The bridge was built by constructing different sections of the arches, and then welding them together on site before lifting them into place with cranes. A pier was built in the river out of concrete legs, and parts of the concrete decking, cast on site in temporary sheds, were lifted onto the pier at the beginning of construction. The rest of the concrete decking is suspended by steel cables from the arches (http://www.bath.ac.uk/ace/uploads/StudentProjects/Bridgeconference2009/Papers/MASKELL.pdf)

 Pasarelle Léopold-Sédar-Senghor, Paris, France

Image result for solferino bridge

(http://bridge-design-space.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/passerelle-de-solferino.html)

  • 106m long, 15m wide (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passerelle_L%C3%A9opold-S%C3%A9dar-Senghor)
  • Designed by Marc Miriam in 1999, originally called Pasarelle Solférino (WELLS, M., 30 Bridges, Laurence King Publishing Ltd., 2002)
  • Simple, low arch shape, with two points of access on either side, a high and low access point for access from lower part of bank and higher part of bank. Created this way to meet Miriam’s design aim, which was to create ‘a contemporary design fitted to the historical and symbolic context’ (ibid)
  • Constructed out of steel. Originally intended to be constructed out of aluminium, but there were fears over the flexibility of the material; aluminium has only one third the stiffness of iron. Steel was used instead as a stronger material (ibid)
  • The bridge was also covered in wood; an exotic wood from French Guiana. This initially resulted in problems; the wood, under certain weather conditions, became very slippery, and as a result had to be closed and bands of specially treated anti-slip wood had to be added (http://www.nytimes.com/2000/07/29/style/pont-solferinowater-under-a-troubled-bridge.html?mcubz=1)
  • The bridge is built with large concrete pillar foundations built extending 15m into the ground. It was constructed as 6 150 tonne components, built by the Eiffel engineering company (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passerelle_L%C3%A9opold-S%C3%A9dar-Senghor)

 Bures Millennium Bridge, Bures, UK

Steel Truss Bridges

(http://www.ctsbridges.co.uk/bridges/steel-bridges/steel-truss-bridges/)

  • 32m long footbridge crossing the River Stour (http://www.bures-online.co.uk/millennium/millennium.htm)
  • Steel truss bridge, a modified Pratt truss bridge with structural bays within which two diagonal support beams form a cross (http://www.ctsbridges.co.uk/bridges/steel-bridges/steel-truss-bridges/)
  • The bridge was constructed in two parts in Huddersfield, before being delivered to the site on two long articulated lorries. The two sections were welded together on sight, and a large crane lifted the assembled bridge into place (http://www.bures-online.co.uk/millennium/millennium.htm)
  • Steel was used as it is a strong yet economic material to use for bridges over 10m long (http://www.ctsbridges.co.uk/bridges/steel-bridges/)
  • The bridge was designed and the project carried out by the Bures Project Association. The project ran from November 1997 and was officially opened on 7th July 2002 (http://www.bures-online.co.uk/millennium/millennium.htm)

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jyoti Sehdev on: September 4, 2017
Good start, Benedict. You've done well to investigate different pedestrian bridges, including ones not in the brief. Next to think about: what materials do these bridges have in common? Does the span of the bridge have anything to do with material choice? What are other bridges in the area made out of?

Bridge Research

1 of the "Bridge Research" Student Studio Workbook

London Millennium Bridge

  • This is a shallow suspension bridge which is predominantly supported by two ‘Y’ shaped arms. The deck is four meters wide and four cables run along each side of it that span the whole length of the bridge.
  • Every eight meters the cables are clamped on to the deck to provide support where the armatures are least effective.
  • The deck itself has a slight curved nature which means it is arced over the Thames.
  • It spans 320 meters and the structure allows the cables to not rise over 2.3 meters above the deck. This means that the panoramic view of London is not disturbed.
  • The main structure is made of steel and the stem of the ‘Y’ shaped armatures is concrete but the deck is made of aluminum.
  • The concrete section is that because it is very strong and if built and protected correctly, it is water resistant; essential for a bridge crossing water.
  • Steel is used due to its flexible nature and when faced with a problem, a solution is easy to find when using steel, allowing it to be adapted and transformed into the most obscure of structures; including the Millennium bridge London. It is also a fast material to work with.
  • Construction of the bridge started in 1996 and was completed in 2000, later opened to the public in June.
  • The bridge was designed by Sir Norman Foster and sculpted by Sir Anthony Caro.
  • The engineering team who won this project was Arup.
  • The bridge started off with burying the two armatures in the river and two cone shaped cranes were supported by them which allowed  the steel frame, which includes the clamps and cables. Then once the frame is in place the deck can be placed.
  • The bridge has to endure redesign after the resonance created by the walking caused it to wobble; a phenomena previously unknown the the engineering of bridges.Image result for wobbly bridge

Infinity Bridge

  • The bridge has two arches, one higher and  one shorter than the other with an array of cables which supports the pedestrian and cyclist deck. The arcs are asymmetric and is a continuous part of the structure.
  • This is a cable-stayed bridge
  • The bridge spans 180m across the Tees in Stockton
  • It is an all steel bridge with the steel arches supporting the steel deck using steel cables.
  • Construction started June 2007 and was opened to the public in 2009
  • It was designed by Expedition engineering with design support from Spence associates.
  • The asymmetric curve came in sections that were welded together and the steel cable were attached to eye-whole nuts which were bolted to the frame. Once the frame was in place the deck was added.
  • The arches are used in bridges to transfer the load so less stress is placed on the deck.
  • There is an ‘X’ shaped structure at the trough at the wave shaped arches.

Tacoma Bridge (Gallopin’ Gertie)

  • It is a twin steel structure suspension bridge with thick metal beams that run from end to end, crossing over the towers. Thinner steel cables provide support for the beams that come down vertically from the wave like beams to the deck.
  • The bridge spanned across 1810m.
  • The towers, cables and beams were made out of steel where as the deck/road was made out of concrete with the frame for the deck being made out of steel.
  • The construction for the bridge began in 1938 and was open to the public  in 1940; also closing that year in November.
  • Chief engineers of which there were seven include Joseph B. Strauss and David B. Steinman.
  • This bridge was famously built unaware of the physics of resonance in terms of bridges. The center of the road was a node and on November 7th 40mph winds hit the bridge causing it to wobble and shake with tremendous a amplitude; deeming the bridge closed later that day. One dog perished but no-one else was injured as it collapsed.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mclp9QmCGsImage result for tacoma bridge

 

Golden Gate Bridge

  • This bridge spans 2737m with a height of 227m.
  • It is a twin pillar suspension bridge with steel girders and cables to support it. The foot of the pillars are concrete but the rest is steel. The steel beams are suspended from tower to tower, connecting to the deck in the center with steel cable coming vertically down from different heights of the beam.
  • At one side where the bridge connects to land there is an arch under the deck for extra support and to also make it easier to mount to the piece of land it connects to.
  • Construction for the bridge started on January 5th 1933 and was open to the public May 1937.
  • The chief engineer Joseph B. Strauss (also know for the Tacoma Bridge).
  • To avoid a catastrophic disaster more small cables are used rather than one large one to support the structure, so if a natural accident happened, there would be time to evacuate those who are in the damage zone.

Rolling Bridge Paddington, London

  • It is a truss bridge that is 12m long and will roll up into a ball using a system of hydraulic compressors to allow boats into the canal ever Friday at noon.
  • It was designed by engineers SKM Anthony Hunts and Packman Lucas.
  • It is made up of triangular steel sections which support a lightweight timber deck that rolls up using said ‘hydraulic actuators’.
  • This pedestrian bridge was constructed and finished in 2004 but underwent maintenance from 2008 to 2009.
  • The use of steel allows it to be shaped and welded in obscure ways whilst it remaining economical.Image result for rolling bridge london

Kiel-Horn Folding Bridge (Matthew Wells, 2002, 30 Bridges, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd)

  • Briefly, this is a folding bridge in North Germany which used a system of pulleys to lift and fol the center of the bridge to allow the passage of boats, as it is placed near a historic dockyard.
  • It uses steel in various ways such as cables and the fame as well as the deck.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Charlie Cornish on: September 5, 2017
As per our conversation, good work, and well worth looking into the Millennium Bridge paper and some more work about the causes of the Tacoma Narrows bridge collapse - I'll email you some links!

Choosing a route option

2 of the "Choosing a route option" Student Studio Workbook

Contemplating the options

Option one:

its cheap and as it is a short bridge it requires less materials but still maintaining its strength as it will be attached to the nearby railway bridge; also reducing the required materials even more. It will not disrupt the view from the power station and will allow a wide angled view of London from it.

Construction of the bridge will severely disrupt the railway bridge and cause part if not complete closure for all lines that require the bridge for operation. It takes the longest time to reach Pimlico station so in that respect it is least convenient.

 

Option two:

It is also a short bridge so the price is brought down and there is a large access area for the bridge on the south side where the power station is. The price is also manageable in comparison to option three.

However, the northern alignment is very thin so during busy hours, access will be restricted and be least efficient for its main purpose of simplifying the journey for users between Pimlico and Battersea power station. This means it is not very convenient and lessens its claim.

 

Option three:

It is the quickest journey time of the three options and it is most convenient for workers as the bridge placement is nearest to Pimlico Station. On both banks there will be a large alignment area allowing efficient use of the bridge when it is required most during rush hour. Its a long bridge so the positives from that is their is more time to enjoy the panoramic view of London as well as allowing entry from two sites on the south side dock. The required height of the bridge make the longer bridge a more viable option and it with reduce the gradient of the curve.

It is the most expensive options on paper but could possibly be reduced by the choice of materials and efficiency of workers. It is very close to a listed phone-box so if chosen it will have to tread lightly on where it is placed.

 

General Points and requirements

New walls are being built on the north side of the Thames so the bridge must at least exceed 6.41m above sea level as well as the waterway code requiring the bridge to be above 9.91m at the center due to the water way being busiest in that place. There are docks that cannot be removed so any options that seem to interfere with that can be removed straight away. it is important for the new bridge to suit the current scenery of the area. Other than the docks, there are no other interruptions that could disturb the bridge in the water. There are tunnels for water and other resources but the intended height of the bridge and positioning of the chosen option means that the armatures will not interrupt the integrity of the tunnels.

 

Current area scenery

With the power station and the Chelsea bridge, the area is very much ‘Art Deco’ based and any new bridge must match, be or support that theme. Color scheme from the Albert and Vauxhall bridge include white black and red which is very much within the ‘Art Deco’ jurisdiction so it will not be hard for an appropriate design to be met. Regarding the exposed red brick of the Battersea power station, it would match any bold, dark reddish scheme such as the shade produced by weathering steel. There is an option to build a pier where the bridge can be built upon but that will make it even harder to structure the minimum 9.91m requirement of the bridge.

 

Stakeholder intentions and limitations

Council;

  • must abide by waterway code.
  • the bridge must exceed the river in which it crosses for safety.
  • as mentioned for this project to gain planning permission it must suit the local landscape.
  • It will be in the councils best interest for the bridge to be cost effective and environmentally economical (the possible introduction of greenery etc).

Pedestrians;

  • The new route must make the route for pedestrians better so maybe a more scenic route or improve the duration.
  • It must be spacious even when busy for the best quality of travel for the users].
  • It must be easily accessible so to allow for wheelchair users or buggies so the intention is for a slope to be incorporated.
  • The project must be aesthetically pleasing.

Cyclists;

  • This project will be the first non-traffic, pro cyclist footbridge across the Thames so it is important to have their interests in the forefront of our minds.
  • There must be a clear two way route independent of pedestrians.
  • the cycle route must deem safer and more convenient than their current commute.
  • It would be better if the cycle lanes were wider so as to allow for the possibility of more than one speed crossing the bridge at any one time.

Residents;

  • The new route must make the route of pedestrians better so maybe more scenic or improve duration.
  • When built, the structure must reduce as much as it can the sound that can be made from it or by it.
  • Lights at night must not be too bright as to not allow local homeowners to suffer from a lack of sleep.

The chosen option is three because the only restraint is cost but if labor and materials can be chosen with cost in mind, the damage can be reduced to maybe a more feasible price. This option is most convenient and does not overstep any of the limitations so finding a way to overcome its single problem will be the ideal way forward. If certain environmental benefits are incorporated then the extra money paid may even pay off in the future on the global scale. Materials such as bamboo came up quite often as it co tributes to the environmental goal, it is much stronger and durable than a lot of proposed materials for the deck but it also contributes the economy of poorer countries where bamboo is in high supply; as well as reducing the need for alternate timbers or metals. It has quick growing rate, allowing it to be cut down and replenished quite rapidly.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Charlie Cornish on: September 6, 2017
Good consideration of the construction costs and the key stakeholders. It's clear why you have decided to go for Option 3, and you have picked up most of the key considerations. Something interesting to think about is whether a new bridge does in fact have to 'fit in' with the current cityscape, or can be something new? Perhaps have a think about this when it comes to the design stage.

Desk Study and Further Planning

2 of the "Desk Study and Further Planning" Student Studio Workbook

Choice of Alignment

I first needed to work out the benefits and disadvantages of each option. Whereas Option 1 would conceivably be the cheapest option, as it would require the smallest amount of materials due to it being built on the side of the existing railway bridge, it would disrupt the train line. This would be the most disruptive choice I could make and as such I ruled it out. Option 2 made sense: it was cheap and direct, but on the north bank of the river, the pavement was very thin. Choosing this one would require a redevelopment of the pavement on the other side of the road. Option 3 would be diagonal across the river, and so would require more material as it spans a longer difference. This would increase costs. However, it would come out closer to Pimlico station, and so be better for the people coming from there.

I worked out the best places for Options 2 and 3 to be built along the north bank of the river. For Option 2, it would be directly across the river from the Battersea Power Station. For Option 3, I was considering a number of options. There was a green park area upstream from the power station on the north bank, called Pimlico Garden and Shrubbery, but this area has a Grade 2 Listed statue in it and as such the area should be protected. Slightly closer to the power station, on the corner of Grosvenor Road and Claverton Street, where the pavement initially thickens, is another possible site. This would be a convenient place to build the bridge, but it would have to avoid a phone box, which is also Grade 2 Listed. This shouldn’t be too hard, however, so this is the site I went with for Option 3.

To decide on the alignment, I had to consider several things:

 

Stakeholders

  • Rail Operators:

-would be against Option 1 as it would disrupt services

-have no reason to be against other options, as long as they don’t disrupt travel

  • Residents/Business owners

residential buildings next to site where Option 3 could be built, so the residents may be unhappy in the short term when the bridge is being built

-large residential area nearby, so wherever bridge built the residents may be unhappy with works due to noise and air pollution, as well as possible disruptions, for example in the road

-may be happier in the long term due to the improved access the bridge will provide, and the regeneration the bridge may bring about on the south bank of the river

-The Battersea Power Station site and the surrounding area is used by business owners, which may be unhappy in the short term with the noise and air pollution, as it may affect business, and some may even have to close. However, major redevelopments are due to happen in the area anyway, and so this cannot be avoided

-Business owners should be happy with the ease of access for new customers from the opposite side of the river

  • Council

-they are the force behind the redevelopment of the southside riverfront, so they will not be against the building of a bridge as it will help bring about regeneration

-may result in an increase of travel between opposite sides of the river, bringing about a spread of people and, for example, businesses

-people may begin permanently moving to the south side of the river as a result of the improved access, which would improve the south side further

-may encourage people to cross the river by foot or on bike instead of car, which is better for the environment

  • Cyclists

-will give more options for cyclists as they will have a river crossing point in this area, which they currently do not have that is not shared with cars. The only other crossing points are Vauxhall Bridge, Chelsea Bridge and slightly further away, Albert Bridge. These are busy and potentially dangerous roads

-This could give a new cycle route, which is beneficial, and the bridge is proposed to be used as a new section of the Thames Path

  • Thames Path users

-The new bridge will give an option to cross the river to reach an alternative section of the Thames Path along the river’s north bank

  • River navigators (boat users)

-the river may be obstructed during construction of the bridge, and as a busy water way this would have to be avoided or the boat users would be unhappy

-if the bridge isn’t built high enough, the boat users will be against the bridge

-two piers are in use around the area where the bridge will be built, so the bridge wouldn’t be allowed to obstruct access to these piers. Option 3 may do this if it is built at too shallow an angle to the river front

 

Footbridge Access

The main purpose of installing the footbridge is to improve access to the Battersea Park Power Station site. It could be assumed most people in this area will be coming from Pimlico station, or at furthest, London Victoria.

On Google Maps (https://www.google.co.uk/maps/) the address closest to where I proposed Option 2 would be built on the north bank of the river was 108 Grosvenor Road, SW1V 3LG. The address closest to where I proposed Option 3 would be built was 128 Grosvenor Road, SW1V 3JY. According to Google Maps, the time it would take to walk to from Pimlico Station to these addresses was:

  • 12 minutes average to Option 2
  • 9 minutes average to Option 3

According to the same source, the time taken to walk from London Victoria Station to these addresses was:

  • 18 minutes average to Option 2
  • 16 minutes average to Option 3

Option 3 is shown to be more easily accessible as it takes less time to get to the bridge from the closest stations on the north side of the river. However, the time saved by building Option 3 isn’t any more than 3 minutes, which isn’t a great amount for the increased cost of Option 3. For this reason it seems more logical to go with Option 2, as less money is spent, and not much time is added to the journeys of people travelling to the bridge.

 

Obstacles

Considering obstacles on the north bank of the river helped me decide where I would place Option 3 if I were to go with it, as previously stated. However, considering obstacles mainly helped me decide where to build the bridge on the south side of the river, which should not change depending on the option I go with (unless I went with option 1, which I have already ruled out) There are two working piers along the south bank of the river which should not be disturbed. This limits my options as to where to build the bridge; however, there is conveniently a seemingly disused Brownfield site between the two piers which could be renovated to serve as the access point to the bridge. This could be done along with a new riverside path connecting the existing Thames Path which turns at Chelsea Bridge.

Other obstacles include underground service tunnels and mains water pipes, which should be carefully considered during the design and construction of the bridge in order to be avoided. There is also the intertidal foreshore, which shouldn’t be affected as long as the bridge joins the banks higher up, at street level.

Map showing potential obstacles for the proposed bridge

(https://www.studentstudio.co.uk/student-resource/obstacles-in-the-river/)

Final Choice

All things considered, I believe that the best choice is Option 2. It is the cheaper option and least disruptive.

 

Bridge Aesthetic

The bridge should fit into the surrounding urban environment to help get planning permission; for example, it should compliment the Battersea Power Station’s 1930s Art Deco style. In order to decide on an appropriate style, I’ve looked into other bridges in the area. There are three main ones: Albert Bridge, Chelsea Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge.

Albert Bridge was built in the 1873. It is a cable stayed bridge, but has elements of a suspension bridge.

Image result for albert bridge

(https://www.flickr.com/photos/essexglover/4402340296)

Chelsea Bridge, as it stands today, was built in 1937. This could make it an appropriate bridge to base my design off of, as it was built at a similar time to the Battersea Power Station, which is the defining landmark to be seen from the bridge. It is a self-anchored suspension bridge.

Image result for chelsea bridge

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelsea_Bridge#/media/File:Chelsea_Bridge,_London.jpg)

Vauxhall Bridge was built between 1809 and 1816. It is an arch bridge. Its design doesn’t seem appropriate as my design requires a space in the central section of the river to allow for the central navigation channel, and the Vauxhall bridge crosses a wider expanse of river. The Vauxhall bridge is made up of several arches over the entire span of the bridge.

Image result for vauxhall bridge

(https://lookup.london/amazing-secret-vauxhall-bridge/)

One other bridge I could draw inspiration from is the Golden Gate Bridge- one of the most famous examples of an Art Deco bridge in the world.

Image result for golden gate bridge

(http://www.sftravel.com/golden-gate-bridge)

 

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jyoti Sehdev on: September 6, 2017
This is absolutely fantastic, Ben. You have made it very clear how you have evaluated each route option and your basis for your final decision of option 2. Your site analysis has really added to your identification and evaluation of the stakeholders. This is one of the most important considerations when coming up with a design for a project. Well done as well for identifying protected structures and allowing them to influence your decision. Great to see a range of bridge designs that can be used for inspiration for the design of your bridge. The next steps will involve sketching some different conceptual designs for your bridge, and considering how the bridge will be supported and what materials will be used. Also think about how the bridge will link into the banks and how people will be able to access the bridge.

Designing the Bride

3 of the "Designing the Bride" Student Studio Workbook

Before starting drawing up rough sketches and initial concepts, I did a bit more research relating to my bridges dimensions; how long it will be, how wide it should be, and how much space to leave for the navigation channel of the Thames.

First of all, I needed to find out how wide the river was at my chosen location. Using Google Maps’ ‘measure distance’ tool[1] I found out that the river was approximately 235m wide at the point I’m building the bridge, to the nearest 5m. Using the same tool, I measured the Brownfield site, where I want to build the bridge from, to be just under 50m wide.

I found the minimum width of a shared-use pedestrian and cycle bridge to be 3.5m, with a clear dividing line between the pedestrian path and cycle path[2]. I’ll allow a minimum of 2m for each, but preferably more, so my bridge will have a width of at least 4m. I reckon 6m would be best, with 3.5m being allowed for cyclists and 2.5m allowed for pedestrians.

The other consideration is how the bridge will join on to the banks and how it will be accessed by the public. A ramp access would be necessary for bikes, as well as for wheelchairs. The United Nations Accessibility Design manual[3] recommends a maximum slope of 1 in 20, or ~2.86 degrees for wheelchair accessibility, with a landing provided every 10.0m or every time there is a turn in the ramp. This landing would need to be at least 1.20m wide in length.

The height of the navigation channel would need to be 9.91m AOD[4], which is only a small increase from the height of the bank, as the bridge will be rising from the sea wall, which will have a height of 6.41m AOD[5]. I couldn’t find explicit data about how wide the navigation channel is, but I have determined that a safe width to leave is 144m, as this is the space in between the piers of the Millennium bridge in London[6].

*However, using the Google Maps measure distance tool[1], the distance between arches of Vauxhall Bridge are only around 53m wide, which suggests the navigation channel doesn’t have to be as wide. This gives me the opportunity to design a multi arch bridge or a bridge with more than one set of piers on either side.

[1] https://www.google.co.uk/maps

[2] www.cbdg.org.uk/tech2.asp

[3] http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/designm/AD2-01.htm

[4] https://www.studentstudio.co.uk/student-resource/navigation-channel/

[5] https://www.studentstudio.co.uk/student-resource/obstacles-in-the-river/

[6] http://www.bristol.ac.uk/civilengineering/bridges/Pages/NotableBridges/LondonMillennium.html  

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Jyoti Sehdev on: September 7, 2017
Hi Ben, really good progress so far. As discussed, it would be really good to see a plan of how the bridge would connect into the road layout on both of the banks. Now you've decided on the arch bridge, start thinking about how much your bridge will weigh (known as 'dead load') and how many people you would expect to stand on it.
Comment by Benedict Crossey on: September 7, 2017
Didn't actually mean to submit this just yet, but I'm not sure there was much more i could add anyway

Initial Ideas

3 of the "Initial Ideas" Student Studio Workbook

From the off, by choosing option 3 we have limited the type of bridge we can design. The first one is a beam bridge, due to the height we must reach, the bridge will almost certainly need to arch creating an arch bridge and defeating the point of it being a beam as well as there not being enough pavement space to place a beam on. Also, a truss bridge, containing many components that all must be straight, elevating a bridge higher ~3m is going to be difficult. So the options that are left are a suspension bridge, a cable-stayed bridge and an arch bridge. Due to being an expensive bridge, the requirements for an arch bridge to support the load would add too many materials that we cannot afford.

After a variation of designs based upon the last two types of bridge, the best option was a suspension bridge suspended from two piers that match the Battersea power station towers that are independent of the bridge but suspend it with cables. The bridge is also supported but two smaller piers that appear near the alignment areas of the bridge. There will be two cycle lanes each of 2m wide and two pedestrian paths both of 3m wide with the cycle lane cutting the pedestrians in half with zebra crossings to allow pedestrian to switch side which will offer different views.

During an average rush hour, presuming the bridge is full, there will be an average of 8.9MN placed upon the bridge for around 90-120 minutes. Therefore the structure would be build to adhere to this. The deck will be 1m thick to allow for extra reinforcement and also the possibility of including extra greenery in ideally plant pots or even planting of small trees. The width of the north side entrance will be 10m with it being 11m wide on the south-side entrance as there is more space. There will be a 6m wide staircase on the south-side connecting the lower level of Battersea power station and where the entrances. There is also a route to that area that is around the block but there will also be a 1.5m wide ramp which is predominantly for the less able.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Alex Woods on: September 11, 2017
As per conversation

Dam Research

1 of the "Dam Research" Student Studio Workbook

Main types of dam

  • Arch dam
    • They are made up of concrete.
    • the dam must be support at its ends by solid rock and need to be built upon rock with good foundations
    • this dam is most suitable for narrow gorges so that the steep walls of the embodying rock-side provide support for the structure and relive some of the tensile stress pushing on the dam.
  • Embankment dam,
    • They can be made up in two ways; earthfill dams or rockfill dams.
    • The earthfill dams are primarily made of compacted earth.
    • whereas rockfill dams are made up of compacted rock.
    • Both forms of materials are usually quarried from quarries around the area.
    • These dams also have a core for reinforcement usually made from concrete or clay soils.
    • Best use scenarios are for wider valleys and can be built on hard rocks or not so hard soils.
  • Buttress dam (hollow gravity dams)
    • Predominantly made up of concrete or masonry.
    • They can be adjusted to fit narrow or wide valleys.
    • Good choice for wide valleys where there is not so hard rock foundations.
  • Gravity dam
    • Also made up of concrete or masonry.
    • Constructed upon solid ground rock is essential.
    • Can fit narrow or wide valleys also.
    • designed so each section of the dam is staying strong independent of the other sections
    • the weight resists the resultant forces of water
    • Forces acting on the gravity dam include; water pressure, uplift pressure(buoyancy), pressure due to earthquake forces, wave and ice pressure.
    • More durable than arch and buttress dams so as long as there is solid foundations, its the preferred choice wherever

The most expensive dam ever built is the ‘Grand Inga Dam’ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which costs ~$80 billion; which is yet to be built.

The second tallest dam in the world is the ‘Nurek Dam’ in Tajikistan which follows the The ‘Jinping-I Dam’ in China at heights 300m and 305m respectively.

The dam with the biggest volume in the world is the ‘Tarbela Dam’ in Pakistan, which is 153,000,000 m^3.

These previous three dams took 11 years, eight years and eight years respectively.

Why would you use an Arch-Gravity dam?

  • It combines the curved nature of an arch dam to the use of a heavy concrete gravity dam to provide a very resistant dam to the reservoir.
  • The thrust of the water pushes against the dam which in turn; due to the curve, pushes out against the heavily ground encasing canyon.
  • The gravity part provides a large ‘W’ to stop it from surrendering to the force of the water.
  • The combined type of dam provides a very (successfully) resistive force against the pressure the water applies from the reservoir.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Hazel Needham on: September 14, 2017
Elian has researched a wide range of dams and was able to present his research in a clear and concise manner. He was able to talk with confidence about his research and showed a good understanding of the flow of forces. By balancing his work on student studio with the other tasks given to him Elian has shown that he is able to manage his time well.

Dam Research

1 of the "Dam Research" Student Studio Workbook

Arch Dams

Arch dams are concrete dams, curved into the shape of an arch, such that the top of the arch is curved backwards into the water. This arch shape is a strong one. It is designed so that the force of the weight of the water behind it compresses and strengthens it.

refer to emails for my diagrams

Gravity Dams

 

Supervisor Comments

5 different bridges and some engineering behind them

1 of the "5 different bridges and some engineering behind them" Student Studio Workbook

Forth Rail Bridge

  • This was designed by Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker. However, construction began in 1890.
  • Materials = mostly made of steel and granite
  • It is a cantilever bridge where a cantilever beam supports a light central girder
  • Each cantilever tower is supported by a circular pier
  • Located just west of Edinburgh

Tacoma Narrows Bridge

  • Suspension bridge
  • Located in the state of Washington and built ibn the early 1940s
  • The effect of forced resonance occurred due to the wind providing the same frequency as the bridges natural frequency.
  • Aeroelastic flutter?
  • Designed by Leon Moisseiff

Millennium Bridge

  • Steel suspension bridge
  • On the opening day thousands of people went on the bridge. This created vibration leading to resonance.
  • People were then limited from going on it, however, this did not dampen the vibrations.
  • 2 days after being opened, it had to be shut and fluid dampers were put in place.
  • Constructed by Monberg and thorsen and Sir Robert McAlpine

Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge

  • Longest bridge in the world and is 102 miles long
  • It is a viaduct bridge and carries a railway line
  • Made of several bridges that are joined together

Diamond Jubilee footbridge

  • Designed by expedition
  • Links the Thames between Chelsea and Battersea
  • It has a three-span arrangement with a larger outer span and a smaller central span. It also has a diamond shaped steel section reinforcing the bridges name.
  • It is the first pedestrian and cycle bridge over the Thames
  • It is made of painted steel
  • Construction started in June 2016
  • Arch Bridge

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Charlie Cornish on: October 23, 2017
Good work, I marked it verbally and we talked about the different types of bridges. Tracing a load path is a really useful skill and you did this correctly on Exchange House.

Battersea Power Station

2 of the "Battersea Power Station" Student Studio Workbook

The proposed bridge is used to improve pedestrian and cycle access to the power station site. The construction of a new bridge provides an opportunity to create the first traffic-free river crossing for cyclists in this area of London.

The majority of the people using the bridge will be coming from the North side of the Thames and the surrounding underground stations – Sloane square and Pimlico station.

The obstacles that might obstruct the pedestrians and cyclists routes to the thames are: the river walls built to protect the surrounding areas and the working piers on the riverfront.

The bridge should relate to other nearby structures by being of a similar style as otherwise it would stand out and the bridge will most likely not receive planning permission.

Choosing an alignment:

Option 1:

Advantage = will not disrupt views and less materials are required

Disadvantage = Could disrupt the railway line

Option 2:

Advantage = It would be the easiest bridge to execute as it is the smallest distance

Disadvantage = The pavement is thin and hard to access from the Pimlico station side

Option 3:

Advantage = Most convenient for pedestrians from the Pimlico station side

Disadvantage = Most expensive as requires the most materials

From all of these options, I think the most advantageous is that of option 1, as the rail line can just be built around.

Stakeholder Meeting

The route I have chosen is that of option 1 as it is overall the most advantageous. It is relatively cheap to build and will not disrupt views around the site. Also as aforementioned, the rail line can be built around.

Reflective diary 

In my opinion, the time planning went very well as the task only took an hour. Tomorrow, I will try and evaluate the options more and go into greater detail in order to explain my decision. I have learnt that civil engineering isnt solely to do with construction, but also evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the obstacles that might prevent constructions being put in place.

 

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Charlie Cornish on: October 24, 2017
Well done, as discussed

Bridge design

3 of the "Bridge design" Student Studio Workbook

Concept: 

  • The bridge will be accessible by a pathway attached to Grosvenor Road to directly in front of Battersea Power station (see map). This will then grant immediate access to Pimlico station and the power plant.
  • The supports will be made of reinforced steel and the shape will be that of a single, rotated arch shape.
  • There will then also be supports on either side of the bridge attached by cables to the bridges made body. This will increase the bridges stability.

Design:

  • This arching design will not block navigation of the ships as it will have a width at water level of 300m and the footpath level will be 50m above water level.
  • Clearance requirements?
  • The full bridge will be around 500m and the access ramps require 35m each.

Supervisor Comments

Comment by Charlie Cornish on: October 26, 2017
Looks good! Well done.

Calculations and construction

4 of the "Calculations and construction" Student Studio Workbook

Calculations:

  • The bridge is to be roughly 0.05m thick of reinforced steel with a top layer of aluminium
  • The live load is approximately 576,000kg
  • The dead load and then consequently the weight on each support was hard to work out but would probably be something with a factor of *10^8kg

Construction sequence:

  • Supports in water
  • Arch attached to supports and cables put in place
  • Steps to footbridge added
  • footpath put in

 

  • The construction materials will be brought to the sight by both lorries and barges travelling down the river.
  • The parts of the bridge will be constructed in warehouses and then shipped up the thames
  • Disruption can be minimised by using a larger building force to erect the construction in a shorter time period

Supervisor Comments

Research

1 of the "Research" Student Studio Workbook

Starting off with web-based research and getting used to the idea of logging my experiences in reflective diaries, capture what i find out about bridges.

Supervisor Comments